Because immunity againsthas not been fully elucidated, there is no diagnostic test to gauge how robust a patient’s host response is likely to be. Therefore, we aimed to develop a test for specific antibodies in serum with diagnostic and prognostic potential.
Cochrane in CORR
Military orthopaedic surgeons have published a substantial amount of original research based on our care of combat-wounded service members and related studies during the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. However, to our knowledge, the influence of this body of work has not been evaluated bibliometrically, and doing so is important to determine the modern impact of combat casualty research in the wider medical community.
Percutaneous Distraction Pinning for Metacarpophalangeal Joint Stabilization After Blast or Crush Injuries of the Hand
Unstable, severely comminuted fractures of the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint are difficult to treat. Closed treatment and casting of these fractures often fail to maintain proper alignment and impede wound care where concomitant open injuries such as gunshot wounds are present. Conventional pinning or plating techniques are not feasible if extensive bone loss and comminution are present. A distraction pinning technique represents a potential alternative, but results with this approach, to our knowledge, have not been reported.
Heterotopic ossification (HO) is the process of bone formation at a nonskeletal site. Recently, we showed that the earliest steps occur in sensory nerves. We now extend these studies by identifying unique osteogenic progenitors within the endoneurial compartment of sensory nerves.
Preventing Heterotopic Ossification in Combat Casualties—Which Models Are Best Suited for Clinical Use?
To prevent symptomatic heterotopic ossification (HO) and guide primary prophylaxis in patients with combat wounds, physicians require risk stratification methods that can be used early in the postinjury period. There are no validated models to help guide clinicians in the treatment for this common and potentially disabling condition.
What Risk Factors Predict Recurrence of Heterotopic Ossification After Excision in Combat-related Amputations?
Heterotopic ossification (HO) is common after combat-related amputations and surgical excision remains the only definitive treatment for persistently symptomatic HO. There is no consensus in the literature regarding the timing of surgery, and recurrence frequency, reexcision, and complications have not been reported in large numbers of patients.
Short-term muscle atrophy induced by botulinum toxin A (BTxA) has been observed to impair osteogenesis in a rat closed femur fracture model. However, it is unclear whether the underlying mechanism is a direct effect of BTxA on muscle-bone interactions or an indirect effect that is driven by skeletal unloading. Because skeletal trauma in the closed fracture model also leads to disuse atrophy, we sought to mitigate this confounding variable by examining BTxA effects on muscle-bone interactions in two complementary in vivo models in which osteogenesis is induced in the absence of skeletal unloading. The overall aim of this study was to identify a potential strategy to inhibit pathological bone formation and heterotopic ossification (HO).
Heterotopic ossification (HO) affects the majority of combat-related lower extremity wounds involving severe fracture and amputation. Defining the timing of early osteogenic-related genes may help identify candidate prophylactic agents and guide the timing of prophylactic therapy after blast and other combat-related extremity injuries.
Heterotopic ossification (HO) develops in a majority of combat-related amputations wherein early bacterial colonization has been considered a potential early risk factor. Our group has recently developed a small animal model of trauma-induced HO that incorporates many of the multifaceted injury patterns of combat trauma in the absence of bacterial contamination and subsequent wound colonization.
What Is the Magnitude and Long-term Economic Cost of Care of the British Military Afghanistan Amputee Cohort?
Personal protection equipment, improved early medical care, and rapid extraction of the casualty have resulted in more injured service members who served in Afghanistan surviving after severe military trauma. Many of those who survive the initial trauma are faced with complex wounds such as multiple amputations. Although costs of care can be high, they have not been well quantified before. This is required to budget for the needs of the injured beyond their service in the armed forces.
Cathodic Electrical Stimulation Combined With Vancomycin Enhances Treatment of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Implant-associated Infections
Effective treatments for implant-associated infections are often lacking. Cathodic voltage-controlled electrical stimulation has shown potential as a treatment of implant-associated infections of methicillin-resistant(MRSA).
Allograft bone is commonly used to augment bone stock. Unfortunately, allograft is prone to bacterial contamination and current antimicrobial therapies are inadequate. Photoactivated porphyrins combat bacterial growth by production of reactive oxygen species (ROS); however, to our knowledge, they have not been tested in the setting of allograft bone.
Local antimicrobial delivery through polymethylmethacrylate beads (PMMA), commonly vancomycin, is used for the treatment of contaminated open fractures but has limited activity againstbiofilms, which occur commonly in such fractures. Rifamycins have activity against biofilms and are an effective treatment for osteoarticular infections involving staphylococcal biofilms, but there are limited studies evaluating the activity of rifamycin derivatives, other than rifampin, against biofilms ofand evaluating incorporation of these drugs into PMMA for treatment of contaminated open fractures.
Autologous bone grafting remains the gold standard in the treatment of large bone defects but is limited by tissue availability and donor site morbidity. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2), delivered with a collagen sponge, is clinically used to treat large bone defects and complications such as delayed healing or nonunion. For the same dose of rhBMP-2, we have shown that a hybrid nanofiber mesh-alginate (NMA-rhBMP-2) delivery system provides longer-term release and increases functional bone regeneration in critically sized rat femoral bone defects compared with a collagen sponge. However, no comparisons of healing efficiencies have been made thus far between this hybrid delivery system and the gold standard of using autograft.
Innate defense regulator peptide-1018 (IDR-1018) is a 12-amino acid, synthetic, immunomodulatory host defense peptide that can reduce soft tissue infections and is less likely to induce bacterial resistance than conventional antibiotics. However, IDRs have not been tested on orthopaedic infections and the immunomodulatory effects of IDR-1018 have only been characterized in response to lipopolysacharide, which is exclusively produced by Gram-negative bacteria.
Can Cytoprotective Cobalt Protoporphyrin Protect Skeletal Muscle and Muscle-derived Stem Cells From Ischemic Injury?
Extremity trauma is the most common injury seen in combat hospitals as well as in civilian trauma centers. Major skeletal muscle injuries that are complicated by ischemia often result in substantial muscle loss, residual disability, or even amputation, yet few treatment options are available. A therapy that would increase skeletal muscle tolerance to hypoxic damage could reduce acute myocyte loss and enhance preservation of muscle mass in these situations.
Does Coordinated, Multidisciplinary Treatment Limit Medical Disability and Attrition Related to Spine Conditions in the US Navy?
Musculoskeletal conditions account for the largest proportion of cases resulting in early separation from the US Navy. This study evaluates the impact of the Spine Team, a multidisciplinary care group that included physicians, physical therapists, and a clinical psychologist, for the treatment of active-duty service members with work-disabling, nonspecific low back pain at the Naval Medical Center, Portsmouth, VA, USA. We compared the impact of the introduction of the Spine Team in limiting disability and attrition from work-disabling spine conditions with the experience of the Naval Medical Center, San Diego, CA, USA, where there is no comparable spine team.
Improvised explosive devices are a common feature of recent asymmetric conflicts and there is a persistent landmine threat to military and humanitarian personnel. Assessment of injury risk to the spine in vehicles subjected to explosions was conducted using a standardized model, the Dynamic Response Index (DRI). However, the DRI was intended for evaluating aircraft ejection seats and has not been validated in blast conditions.
Whole-body Vibration at Thoracic Resonance Induces Sustained Pain and Widespread Cervical Neuroinflammation in the Rat
Whole-body vibration (WBV) is associated with back and neck pain in military personnel and civilians. However, the role of vibration frequency and the physiological mechanisms involved in pain symptoms are unknown.
What Risk Factors Are Associated With Musculoskeletal Injury in US Army Rangers? A Prospective Prognostic Study
Musculoskeletal injury is the most common reason that soldiers are medically not ready to deploy. Understanding intrinsic risk factors that may place an elite soldier at risk of musculoskeletal injury may be beneficial in preventing musculoskeletal injury and maintaining operational military readiness. Findings from this population may also be useful as hypothesis-generating work for particular civilian settings such as law enforcement officers (SWAT teams), firefighters (smoke jumpers), or others in physically demanding professions.
Few studies define the clinical signs to evaluate the integrity of teres minor in patients with massive rotator cuff tears. CT and MRI, with or without an arthrogram, can be limited by image quality, soft tissue density, motion artifact, and interobserver reliability. Additionally, the ill-defined junction between the infraspinatus and teres minor and the larger muscle-to-tendon ratio of the teres minor can contribute to error. Therefore, we wished to determine the validity of clinical testing for teres minor tears.
What Are the Prognostic Factors for Radiographic Progression of Knee Osteoarthritis? A Meta-analysis
A previous systematic review on prognostic factors for knee osteoarthritis (OA) progression showed associations for generalized OA and hyaluronic acid levels. Knee pain, radiographic severity, sex, quadriceps strength, knee injury, and regular sport activities were not associated. It has been a decade since the literature search of that review and many studies have been performed since then investigating prognostic factors for radiographic knee OA progression.
High Survivorship With Cementless Stems and Cortical Strut Allografts for Large Femoral Bone Defects in Revision THA
Numerous studies have investigated the clinical and radiographic results of revision THAs with use of cementless stems and cortical strut allografts. However, to our knowledge, no long-term followup studies have evaluated patients undergoing revision THA with use of cortical strut allografts where the allografts provided the primary stability for extensively coated femoral stems in the presence of extensive femoral diaphyseal bone defects.
Are Complications Associated With the Repiphysis® Expandable Distal Femoral Prosthesis Acceptable for Its Continued Use?
Reconstruction of the distal femur after resection for malignant bone tumors in skeletally immature children is challenging. The use of megaprostheses has become increasingly popular in this patient group since the introduction of custom-made, expandable devices that do not require surgery for lengthening, such as the RepiphysisLimb Salvage System. Early reports on the device were positive but more recently, a high complication rate and associated bone loss have been reported.
Are Volar Locking Plates Superior to Percutaneous K-wires for Distal Radius Fractures? A Meta-analysis
Distal radius fractures are common, costly, and increasing in incidence. Percutaneous K-wire fixation and volar locking plates are two of the most commonly used surgical treatments for unstable dorsally displaced distal radius fractures. However, there is uncertainty regarding which of these treatments is superior.
Joint loading conditions have an effect on the development and management of ankle osteoarthritis and on aseptic loosening after total ankle arthroplasty (TAA). Apart from body weight, compressive forces induced by muscle action may affect joint loading. However, few studies have evaluated the influence of individual muscles on the intraarticular pressure distribution in the ankle.
Deltoid Tuberosity Index: A Simple Radiographic Tool to Assess Local Bone Quality in Proximal Humerus Fractures
Osteoporosis may complicate surgical fixation and healing of proximal humerus fractures and should be assessed preoperatively. Peripheral quantitative CT (pQCT) and the Tingart measurement are helpful methods, but both have limitations in clinical use because of limited availability (pQCT) or fracture lines crossing the area of interest (Tingart measurement). The aim of our study was to introduce and validate a simple cortical index to assess the quality of bone in proximal humerus fractures using AP radiographs.
A High-grade Sarcoma Arising in a Patient With Recurrent Benign Giant Cell Tumor of the Proximal Tibia While Receiving Treatment With Denosumab
A giant cell tumor of bone is a primary benign but locally aggressive neoplasm. Malignant transformation in a histologically typical giant cell tumor of bone, without radiotherapy exposure, is an uncommon event, occurring in less than 1% of giant cell tumors of bone. Although surgery is the standard initial treatment, denosumab, a monoclonal antibody drug that inhibits receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL), has shown considerable activity regarding disease and control of symptoms in patients with recurrence, unresectable, and metastatic giant cell tumors of bone.