Emerging Ideas: Novel 3-D Quantification and Classification of Cam Lesions in Patients With Femoroacetabular Impingement
Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) can lead to labral injury, osseous changes, and even osteoarthritis. The literature contains inconsistent definitions of the alpha angle and other nonthree-dimensional (3-D) radiographic measures. We present a novel approach to quantifying cam lesions in 3-D terms. Our method also can be used to develop a classification system that describes the exact location and size of cam lesions.
The 2012 Otto Aufranc Award: The Interpretation of Metal Ion Levels in Unilateral and Bilateral Hip Resurfacing
The interpretation of metal ion concentrations and their role in clinical management of patients with metal-on-metal implants is still controversial.
The 2012 Frank Stinchfield Award: Decreasing Patient Activity With Aging: Implications for Crosslinked Polyethylene Wear
Patient activity influences polyethylene wear. However, it is unclear how individual activity changes with patient aging after THA.
The 2012 John Charnley Award: Clinical Multicenter Studies of the Wear Performance of Highly Crosslinked Remelted Polyethylene in THA
Highly crosslinked polyethylene (HXLPE) in THA was developed to reduce particle-induced periprosthetic osteolysis. A series of clinical studies were initiated to determine the clinical efficacy as judged by patient-reported scores, radiographic osteolysis, and wear analysis of one form of HXLPE.
Press-fit acetabular components are susceptible to deformation in an underreamed socket, with excessive deformation of metal-on-metal (MOM) components potentially leading to increased torsional friction and micromotion. Specifically, however, it remains unclear how cup diameter, design, and time from implantation affect shell deformation.
Despite dislocation being the most frequent complication after revision THA, risk factors for its occurrence are not completely understood.
While surgical navigation offers the opportunity to accurately place an acetabular component, questions remain as to the best goal for acetabular component positioning in individual patients. Overall functional orientation of the pelvis after surgery is one of the most important variables for the surgeon to consider when determining the proper goal for acetabular component orientation.
Press-fit acetabular component seating in hip resurfacing can be challenging as a strong interference fit is required. It has not been established whether reducing the acetabular underream minimizes incomplete component seating or leads to increased acetabular loosening.
The Articular Surface Replacement™ (ASR™) metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty system (DePuy Orthopaedics, Inc, Warsaw, IN, USA) reportedly has a higher than anticipated early failure rate leading to a voluntary recall. This prompted us to evaluate all ASR™ components implanted at our center.
Low Early and Late Dislocation Rates with 36- and 40-mm Heads in Patients at High Risk for Dislocation
Large (36- and 40-mm) femoral heads with highly crosslinked polyethylene liners were introduced to reduce the risk of dislocation after primary total hip arthroplasty (THA), but it is unclear whether the risk is reduced and whether there is osteolysis or liner fracture.
A number of reconstructive procedures are available for the management of hip osteoarthritis. Hip resurfacing arthroplasty is now an accepted procedure, with implant survivorship comparable to THA at up to 10 years’ followup in certain series. Most reports focus on implant survivorship, surgeon-derived results, or complications. Fewer data pertain to patient-reported results, including validated measures of quality of life (QoL) and satisfaction and baseline measures from which to determine magnitude of improvement. Validated patient-reported results are essential to guide patients and surgeons in the current era of informed and shared decision making.
Currently, the two most commonly used options for the revision of femoral components in North America are: cylindrical, nonmodular, cobalt-chromium stems and tapered, fluted, modular, titanium (TFMT) stems. Previous reports have cited high failure rates with cylindrical cobalt chrome stems in large femoral defects but the longer term survival of the fluted stems is unknown.
Outcomes of Minimally Invasive Anterolateral THA Are Not Superior to Those of Minimally Invasive Direct Lateral and Posterolateral THA
There has been considerable interest in minimally invasive surgical (MIS) THA in recent years. The MIS anterolateral approach, or the MIS Watson-Jones approach, is a novel intermuscular abductor-sparing technique. Early reports from case series suggest the potential for superior function and reduced complications; however, the available information from clinical reports is inadequate to suggest surgeons should change from their accepted standard approach.
Disclosure of Financial Conflicts of Interest: An Evaluation of Orthopaedic Surgery Patients’ Understanding
Industry and orthopaedic surgeons often partner to develop new technology, which can lead to orthopaedic surgeons having financial conflicts of interest (FCOI). It is essential these FCOI be conveyed clearly to patients. It is unclear, however, whether and to what degree patients understand the ramifications of physician FCOI.
Femoroacetabular impingement has been proposed as a cause of early osteoarthritis, but it is not known how this develops over time or whether the shape of the proximal femur influences this risk.
Smoking is considered a risk factor for surgical complications in total hip arthroplasty (THA) and has been linked to a higher rate of aseptic loosening in uncemented acetabular components. Acetabular reconstruction with newer ultraporous metals in both complex primary and revision THA has increased survivorship but it is unclear whether smoking affects survival of these implants.
Prevalence and Treatment of Intraarticular Pathology Recognized at the Time of Periacetabular Osteotomy for the Dysplastic Hip
The indication for hip arthrotomy accompanied by intraarticular work during periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) has not been precisely defined. To validate a role for routine hip arthrotomy accompanied by intraarticular work, frequent intraarticular pathology must exist, and the adjunct procedures must not be associated with inferior relief of pain, reduced function, radiographic osteoarthritis progression, or conversion to THA.
Excessive alcohol consumption has been associated with adverse health measures after elective surgery. The effects of low or moderate consumption remain unclear.
Two-stage Treatment of Hip Periprosthetic Joint Infection Is Associated With a High Rate of Infection Control but High Mortality
Periprosthetic infection after total hip arthroplasty (THA) is a devastating complication. Reported rates of infection control range from 80% to 95% but mortality rates associated with treatment of infected THA are also substantial and we suspect underreported.
Dislocation remains common after total hip arthroplasty. Efforts have been made to identify and minimize risk factors. One such factor, jump distance, or the distance the femoral head must travel before dislocating, has been poorly characterized with respect to three-dimensional kinematics.
Hypothesized risk factors for fracture of ceramic liners include impingement, edge-loading, and cup malpositioning. These risk factors are similar to those for generation of stripe wear. However, it is unclear whether the biomechanical conditions contributing to stripe wear generation also increase the risk for ceramic liner fracture
Lessons Learned From Managing a Prospective, Private Practice Joint Replacement Registry: A 25-year Experience
In 1984, we developed a private practice joint replacement registry (JRR) to prospectively follow patients undergoing THA and TKA to assess clinical and radiographic outcomes, complications, and implant survival. Little has been reported in the literature regarding management of this type of database, and it is unclear whether and how the information can be useful for addressing longer-term questions.
Rotator Cuff Integrity Correlates With Clinical and Functional Results at a Minimum 16 Years After Open Repair
Recurrent or persistent defects in the rotator cuff after its repair are common. Short- and medium-term surveys have revealed, after open repair, patients with an intact rotator cuff have increased function and ROM. However, no long-term studies have verified cuff integrity on MR arthrography or correlated it with clinical and functional outcomes.
Parecoxib Added to Ropivacaine Prolongs Duration of Axillary Brachial Plexus Blockade and Relieves Postoperative Pain
Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 antagonist is widely used for intravenous postoperative pain relief. Recent studies reported COX-2 in the spinal dorsal horn could modulate spinal nociceptive processes. Epidural parecoxib in rats showed no neurotoxicity. These findings suggested applying a COX-2 antagonist directly to the central or peripheral nerve might provide better analgesia.
The episode-of-care concept promulgated by the federal government requires hospitals to assume the cost burden for all care rendered up to 30 days after discharge, including all readmissions occurring in that time. Although surgical site infections (SSIs) are a leading cause of readmission after total joint arthroplasties (TJA) and spine surgery, it is unclear whether these readmissions occur relative to the 30-day period.
Estimating Risk in Medicare Patients With THA: An Electronic Risk Calculator for Periprosthetic Joint Infection and Mortality
Although risk factors for periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) and mortality after total hip arthroplasty (THA) have been identified, interactions between specific patient risk factors are poorly understood. Therefore, it is difficult for surgeons to counsel patients on their individual risk of PJI or mortality after THA.
Can a Triple Pelvic Osteotomy for Adult Symptomatic Hip Dysplasia Provide Relief of Symptoms for 25 Years?
Many surgeons recommend pelvic osteotomy to treat symptomatic hip dysplasia in younger patients. We previously reported a cohort of patients at 10 and 15 years followup in which 65% of the patients showed no progression of osteoarthritis (OA).
When considering arthroscopic surgery for treatment of hip pain, it is important to understand the influence of joint degeneration on the likelihood of success. Previous research has shown poorer outcomes among patients with osteoarthritis but new arthroscopic techniques including femoroacetabular impingement correction and microfracture may lead to better arthroscopic outcomes.
Validation of the Korean Version of the Oxford Knee Score in Patients Undergoing Total Knee Arthroplasty
Although translated versions of the Oxford Knee Score (OKS) in several languages are available, the absence of a Korean version precludes comparing data from Korea with that from other countries using the OKS.
Patellar crepitus may occur with posterior-stabilized (PS) TKAs. Several studies have suggested numerous etiologies of patellar crepitus after PS-TKA with patellar resurfacing. However, it is unclear whether and to what degree crepitus influences pain and function without or with patellar resurfacing.
Intraarticular injections, mainly using long-lasting corticosteroid suspensions, have long been used to treat knee osteoarthritis. Viscosupplementation is a relatively new approach with injection of a variety of agents. When comparing viscosupplementation with intraarticular injections of corticosteroids from baseline to the fourth week, steroids have been more effective for pain relief. By the fourth week they provide similar relief, but beyond that viscosupplementation appears to provide greater pain reduction. The delayed onset of symptomatic improvement combined with reports of reactive synovitis may discourage physicians and patients.
Although several systems exist for classifying specific limb deformities, there currently are no validated rating scales for evaluating the complexity of general lower limb deformities. Accurate assessment of the complexity of a limb deformity is essential for successful treatment. A committee of the Limb Lengthening and Reconstruction Society (LLRS) therefore developed the LLRS AIM Index to quantify the severity of a broad range of lower extremity deformities in seven domains.
Spinal metastases are common in patients older than 60 years with cancer. Because of the uncertainty of survival and the high incidence of fatal complications, however, chemotherapy and radiotherapy generally have been considered preferable and surgery a treatment of last resort for these patients. Further, the selection criteria indicating surgery and reliable prognostic factors for survival remain controversial.
Surgical Technique: Supine Patient Position With the Contralateral Leg Elevated for Femoral Intramedullary Nailing
Intramedullary nailing can be performed with a fracture table or manual traction. Manual traction can be applied with the patient in either the supine or lateral decubitus (LD) position. However, in either of these positions, the reduction can be difficult because the fractured extremity is not positioned parallel to the floor and the contralateral leg on the operating room table overlaps the fractured limb while the fractured extremity is in full adduction. Therefore fluoroscopy time may be increased. Accordingly, we developed a technique with the patient supine and the contralateral leg elevated (SCLE).
The ability to apply casts and splints is a technical skill that requires practice and understanding of basic principles of musculoskeletal medicine. A video in which a given procedure is simulated on a dummy can represent reality under controlled conditions. A decrease in physician competency in musculoskeletal medicine is the result of educational deficiencies at the medical school level.
Surgeon Volume is Associated With Cost and Variation in Surgical Treatment of Proximal Humeral Fractures
The issue of rising costs will likely dominate the healthcare debate in the forthcoming years.
Previous studies have found fewer clinical infections in wounds closed with monofilament suture compared with braided suture. Recently, barbed monofilament sutures have shown improved strength and increased timesavings over interrupted braided sutures. However, the adherence of bacteria to barbed monofilament sutures and other commonly used suture materials is unclear.
Obtaining an orthopaedic surgery residency is competitive. Advisors must understand what factors may help unmatched candidates reapply successfully.
Case Report: Curetting Osteoid Osteoma of the Spine Using Combined Video-assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery and Navigation
A spinal osteoid osteoma is a rare benign tumor. The usual treatment involves complete curettage including the nidus. In the thoracic spine, conventional open surgical treatment usually carries relatively high surgical risks because of the close anatomic relationship to the spinal cord, nerve roots, and thoracic vessels, and pulmonary complications and postoperative pain.