Management of orthopaedic infections relies on débridement and local delivery of antimicrobials; however, the distribution and concentration of locally delivered antimicrobials in postdébridement surgical sites is unknown. Gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA) has been proposed as an imaging surrogate for antimicrobials because it is similar in size and diffusion coefficient to gentamicin.
Cis-2 decenoic acid (C2DA) disperses biofilm in many strains of microorganisms. However, whether C2DA inhibits bacterial growth or has potential to boost the actions of antibiotics is unknown.
Amphotericin is a highly toxic hydrophobic antifungal. Delivery of amphotericin from antifungal-loaded bone cement (ALBC) is much lower than would be expected for an equivalent load of water-soluble antibacterials. Lipid formulations have been developed to decrease amphotericin toxicity. It is unknown how lipid formulations affect amphotericin release and compressive strength of amphotericin ALBC.
High-dose antimicrobial-loaded bone cement (ALBC) is used to treat orthopaedic infections. High-dose ALBC is not commercially available and requires surgeon directed formulation, and there are several different methods used to mix high-dose ALBC.
The incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection is increasing. However, the prevalence of MRSA colonization among patients undergoing spine surgery is unclear.
Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a challenging complication associated with total joint arthroplasty (TJA). Traffic in the operating room (OR) increases bacterial counts in the OR, and may lead to increased rates of infection.
Preoperative Anemia in Total Joint Arthroplasty: Is It Associated with Periprosthetic Joint Infection?
Anemia is common in patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty (TJA). Numerous studies have associated anemia with increased risk of infection, length of hospital stay, and mortality in surgical populations. However, it is unclear whether and to what degree preoperative anemia in patients undergoing TJA influences postoperative periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) and mortality.
Does Dual Antibiotic Prophylaxis Better Prevent Surgical Site Infections in Total Joint Arthroplasty?
It is unclear which antibiotic regimen provides the best prophylaxis against surgical site infection (SSI) in patients undergoing hip and knee surgery.
Enterococcal periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs) are rare after joint arthroplasty. These cases are usually reported in series of PJIs caused by other pathogens. Because few studies have focused only on enterococcal PJIs, management and control of infection of these cases have not yet been well defined.
Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a devastating complication after total joint arthroplasty. Lack of confirmation of an infecting organism poses a challenge with regard to the selection of an appropriate antibiotic agent and surgical treatment. It is unclear whether patients with negative cultures presumed to have infections achieve similar rates of infection-free survival as those with positive cultures.
Does a Prefabricated Gentamicin-impregnated, Load-bearing Spacer Control Periprosthetic Hip Infection?
Treating deep infection following THA has been a challenge. While the standard treatment has remained a two-stage revision, spacer designs, incorporated antibiotics, and concentrations have varied. Since control of infection may relate to choice and concentration of antibiotics, it is important to report rates of control from various spacers.
Periprosthetic joint infection has been the leading cause of failure following TKA surgery. The gold standard for infection control has been a two-staged revision TKA. There have been few reports on mid- to long-term survivorship, functional outcomes, and fate of patients with a failed two-stage revision TKA.
Better Function for Fusions Versus Above-the-knee Amputations for Recurrent Periprosthetic Knee Infection
Treatment of chronic periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs) after TKA is limited to fusions, above-the-knee amputations (AKAs), revision TKA, and antibiotic suppression and is often based on the patient’s medical condition. However, when both fusion and AKA are options, it is important to compare these two procedures with regard to function.
Forearm kinematics and interosseous membrane function in chronic radial head dislocations sustained in childhood are unknown. Several procedures have been performed to reduce the radial head on the basis of static preoperative assessment in only one forearm position, but clinical results are not always favorable.
Trapeziometacarpal joint osteoarthritis is a painful, disabling condition that primarily affects women who are postmenopausal. Arthroplasty has been performed to treat this condition; however, subluxation has been a problem with all previous implants. We report the results of hemiarthroplasty using a prosthesis designed to address the problems associated with previous implants.
Compared with traditional methods of fixation in four-corner arthrodesis, reviews of results using a dorsal circular plate (DCP) have identified higher complication rates. As the use of circular plate fixation for limited wrist arthrodesis was found to be a valuable concept per se and continued innovation and technical advancement are crucial to improve future treatment, changes in plate design were encouraged.
Peripheral Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex Tears Cause Ulnocarpal Instability: A Biomechanical Pilot Study
Instability at the ulnocarpal joint has many causes, but the common thread among these causes is the presence of abnormalities in the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC). However, the biomechanical consequences at the ulnocarpal joint after detachment of the TFCC from the ulnar styloid are not clearly defined. Better delineation of whether peripheral TFCC detachments cause ulnocarpal instability will help to design surgical treatments.
Does Open Repair of Anterosuperior Rotator Cuff Tear Prevent Muscular Atrophy and Fatty Infiltration?
Repair of cuff tears involving rotator interval reportedly improves function. However, it is unclear whether successful repair prevents shoulder degenerative changes.
Osteoporotic vertebral compressed fractures (VCFs) are the most common osteoporotic fractures. Although percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) reportedly relieves pain and improves function, a recent pooled analysis from two multicenter randomized controlled trials concluded the improvement in pain and disability treated with PVP was similar to those with sham surgery.
Clearance is an important determinant of metal-metal bearing function. Tribologic theory and laboratory evidence suggest low clearance (LC) reduces wear but with a potential to increase friction and clinical reports show LC resurfacings have high implant failure rates. Thus, the role of LC is unclear.
Although cross-table lateral radiographs are commonly used to measure acetabular component version after THA, recent studies suggest that CT-based measurement is more accurate. This has been attributed to variations in pelvic tilt, pelvic rotation, and component inclination. Furthermore, it has been suggested, based on limited data, that even with ideal positioning of the cross-table lateral radiograph, CT remains the more accurate modality.
The Vascularized Fibular Graft in Precollapse Osteonecrosis: Is Long-term Hip Preservation Possible?
Osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) is a debilitating condition affecting primarily young patients. Free vascularized fibular grafting (FVFG) may provide a durable means to preserve the femoral head. When used in the precollapse stages of ONFH, this treatment may alter the course of disease.
The rotational position of the acetabulum to the pelvis (acetabular tilt) may influence acetabular version and coverage of the femoral head. To date, the pathologic significance of acetabular tilt in hip dysplasia is unknown.
Extent of Tibiofemoral Osteoarthritis Before Knee Arthroplasty: Multicenter Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative
Knee arthroplasty traditionally is recommended for persons with substantial disability and disabling pain attributable to moderate or severe osteoarthritis (OA). Pain and functional status after arthroplasty may be influenced by the extent of knee OA before surgery and recent evidence suggests persons with less severe knee OA before undergoing TKA have greater pain levels and worse function than persons with more severe knee OA.
Do Patient Expectations About Arthroplasty at Initial Presentation for Hip or Knee Pain Differ by Sex and Ethnicity?
Many studies show gender and ethnic differences in healthcare utilization and outcomes. Patients’ presurgical cognitions regarding surgical outcomes also may vary by gender and ethnicity and play a role in explaining utilization and outcome differences. However, it is unclear whether and to what extent gender and ethnicity play a role in patients’ presurgical cognitions.
Surgical Technique: Lateral Retinaculum Release in Knee Arthroplasty Using a Stepwise, Outside-in Technique
Lateral release of a tight lateral retinaculum in a TKA is intended to correct patellar maltracking but the widely used inside-out technique has associated risks. We describe an alternate stepwise outside-in technique, with titrated release intended to maximize the chance of preserving the superior lateral genicular artery (SLGA).
Ankle arthrodesis may be achieved using the Ilizarov method. Comorbidities, such as diabetes, Charcot neuroarthropathy, osteomyelitis, leg length discrepancy, and smoking, can make an ankle fusion complex and may be associated with lower rates of healing.
Premature bone loss after childhood chemotherapy may be underestimated in patients with bone sarcoma. Methotrexate (MTX), a standard agent in osteosarcoma protocols, reportedly reduces bone mineral density (BMD). The literature, however, has reported cases of BMD reduction in patients with Ewing's sarcoma treated without MTX. Thus, it is unclear whether osteoporosis after chemotherapy relates to MTX or to other factors.
Intralesional excision and en bloc resection are used to treat giant cell tumors (GCTs) of the distal radius. However, it is unclear whether one provides lower rates of recurrences and fewer complications, and whether the use of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) after curettage reduces the risk of recurrence.
Although numerous authors have described surgical experiences following major disasters, little is known regarding the needs of and barriers to care faced by surgeons during such disasters.
Although several types of culture medium have been used for preservation of osteochondral allografts, the viability of chondrocytes decreases with increasing storage duration. We previously showed the University of Wisconsin solution is more suitable for graft preservation than culture medium.
Sonication and scraping of infected prostheses usually are used to improve diagnosis of prosthetic infections, reducing false negatives. Chemical methods that reduce biofilms also may allow higher levels of detection.
The 2012 ABJS Nicolas Andry Award: The Sequence of Prevention: A Systematic Approach to Prevent Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury
ACL injuries are common, often devastating injuries that lead to short-term disability and long-term sequelae, many of which lack effective treatment, such as osteoarthritis. Therefore, prevention of ACL injury is currently the only effective intervention for these life-altering sequelae, while much of the literature has a rehabilitative focus.
Case Report: Bilateral Femoral Neck Fractures in a Child and a Rare Complication of Slipped Capital Epiphysis After Internal Fixation
Bilateral traumatic femoral neck fractures are uncommon in children. The most commonly reported complications are nonunion, avascular necrosis of the femoral head, and chondrolysis. Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) associated with nonunion after percutaneous partially threaded cancellous screw (PTCS) fixation of the fracture is an unreported complication.