Gender Differences in the Correlation between Symptom and Radiographic Severity in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis
The effects of gender on the relationship between symptom manifestations and radiographic grades of knee osteoarthritis are not well understood.
Previous studies suggest differences may exist between men and women in terms of knee function before and after total knee replacement. This may be related to the efficacy of the procedure itself or to differences in the severity of disability of male and female patients at the time of surgery.
Current physician practices are not effective in adequately evaluating and treating patients for osteoporosis. While dual-energy xray absorptiometry is the gold standard in evaluating bone mineral density, calcaneal quantitative ultrasound has emerged as a low-risk and low-cost alternative.
The majority of the 700,000 osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) that occur annually in the United States affect women. The total treatment costs exceed $17 billion and approximate the total costs of breast cancer ($13 billion) and heart disease ($19 billion). Balloon-assisted percutaneous vertebral augmentation with bone cement (kyphoplasty) reportedly reduces VCF-related pain and accelerates return of independent functional mobility. Kyphoplasty may decrease overall cost of VCF treatment costs by reducing use of posttreatment medical resources.
Joint hypermobility syndrome is defined by abnormal laxity in multiple joints in association with symptomatic joint pain. Previous studies in small populations suggest a predominance of female gender and nonwhite race among those diagnosed with hypermobility syndrome.
Despite the prevalence of carpal and cubital tunnel syndrome, and relief of symptoms following timely surgical release, it is unclear how nonclinical patient characteristics affect disease management.
Orthopaedic surgery residency has one of the lowest percentages of women (13.1%) of all primary surgical specialties. There are many possible reasons for this, including bias during the selection process.
Little is known about the rate and factors of progression of shoulder osteonecrosis (ON) related to corticosteroids.
Parkinson’s disease is a relatively common problem in geriatric patients with an annual incidence rate of 20.5 per 100,000. These patients are at increased risk for falls and resultant fractures. Several reports suggest total shoulder arthroplasty in patients with fractures has a relatively high rate of complications. Whether hemiarthroplasty reduces the rate of complications or improves pain or function is not known.
The attainment of upright posture, with its requisite lumbar lordosis, was a major turning point in human evolution. Nonhuman primates have small lordosis angles, whereas the human spine exhibits distinct lumbar lordosis (30°–80°). We assume the lumbar spine of the pronograde ancestors of modern humans was like those of extant nonhuman primates, but which spinal components changed in the transition from small lordosis angles to large ones is not fully understood.
The ideal pedicle entry point for the thoracic spine is described as the base of the superior facet at the junction of the lateral and middle thirds of the pedicle. Investigators have reported its accuracy in curves less than 90°.
Does Ultrasound Correlate with Surgical or Histologic Findings in Greater Trochanteric Pain Syndrome? A Pilot Study
Greater trochanteric pain syndrome can be severely debilitating. Ideal imaging modalities are not established, treatments are not reliably evaluated, and the underlying pathology is not well understood.
Patients with cerebral palsy (CP) are at risk for hip arthrosis secondary to the loss of joint congruity.
Hip fractures in the elderly are common and associated with considerable mortality and disability. Although well known in industrialized countries, the factors associated with mortality after hip fractures are not reported frequently in developing countries and little is known regarding risk factors in Latin America.
Cartilage Thickness in the Hip Measured by MRI and Stereology Before and After Periacetabular Osteotomy
Untreated hip dysplasia can result in a degenerative process joint and secondary osteoarthritis at an early age. While most periacetabular osteotomies (PAOs) are performed to relieve symptoms, the osteotomy is presumed to slow or prevent degeneration unless irreparable damage to the cartilage has already occurred.
Qualitative research studies regarding physical activity in patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty (TJA) unfortunately are sparse in the current literature.
Multiple studies suggest tranexamic acid reduces blood loss and red cell transfusions in patients undergoing THA or TKA. However, many of the dosing schedules in these studies are not ideally suited for routine application.
High Hip Center Technique Using a Biconical Threaded Zweymüller® Cup in Osteoarthritis Secondary to Congenital Hip Disease
The high hip center technique used for a deficient acetabulum is reconstruction of the hip at a high center of rotation. In the literature, there is no consensus regarding the value of this technique.
Primary or idiopathic osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip has increasingly been attributed to the presence of presumably minor femoral or acetabular deformities that are not routinely identified. The alpha angle reflects one such deformity of the femoral neck and reflects a risk for femoroacetabular impingement, which in turn reportedly is associated with OA. If impingement is in fact associated with OA, then one might expect the mean alpha angle to be greater in patients with presumed idiopathic hip OA.
There is controversial evidence regarding whether foot orthoses or knee braces improve pain and function or correct malalignment in selected patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the medial knee compartment. However, insoles are safe and less costly than knee bracing if they relieve pain or improve function.
One-stage Metatarsal Lengthening by Allograft Interposition: A Novel Approach for Congenital Brachymetatarsia
Congenital brachymetatarsia, a shortened metatarsal bone, can be corrected surgically by callus distraction or one-stage lengthening using bone graft.
Techniques for epiphysiodesis have evolved from open surgical techniques requiring direct observation of the physis to percutaneous techniques performed with fluoroscopy.
When reconstructing a hip with developmental dysplasia with a high dislocation, placing the acetabular component in the anatomic position can result in a prosthetic hip that is difficult to reduce. Subtrochanteric femoral osteotomy and shortening makes reduction easier but can be associated with complications (eg, limp, sciatic nerve injury, nonunion of the osteotomy) or compromise long-term stem survival.
The low aggressiveness of Grade I chondrosarcomas is compatible with conservative surgical treatment.
Osteoid osteoma has a nidus surrounded by sclerotic bone with a size usually less than 20 mm. Its diagnosis is made on typical presentation of nocturnal pain and imaging findings. Excision of the niduses, which are often small and difficult to precisely identify, sometimes may result in resection of surrounding normal bone. Minimally invasive percutaneous treatments have been used to try to minimize resection of normal bone. Although minimally invasive radiofrequency ablation generally relieves pain, its ability to relieve pain is less well known in locations other than lower extremity long bones.
Treating ACL injuries in prepubescent patients requires balancing the risk of chondral and meniscal injuries associated with delaying treatment against the risk of growth disturbance from early surgical reconstruction. Multiple physeal respecting techniques have been described to address this vulnerable population; however, none restore the native ACL attachments while keeping the graft and fixation entirely in the epiphysis.
Calcium Phosphate Cement with BMP-2-loaded Gelatin Microspheres Enhances Bone Healing in Osteoporosis: A Pilot Study
The capacity for bone healing reportedly is limited in osteoporosis with a less than ideal environment for healing of bone grafts. We therefore developed a composite bone substitute with rhBMP-2 loaded gelatin microsphere (GM) and calcium phosphate cement (CPC) to use in osteoporosis.
Perioperative management of patients with heterozygous protein C deficiency is challenging because of the competing risks of bleeding and recurrent thrombosis.
Alendronate is known for its ability to reduce bone loss in osteoporotic and osseous metastatic conditions. Its long-term effects remain unclear although several reports describe cases of proximal femur stress fractures associated with long-term alendronate use.