Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research ®

A Publication of The Association of Bone and Joint Surgeons ®

Published in
Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research®
Volume 468 | Issue 3 | Mar, 2010

Joseph C. Risser Sr., 1892–1982

M. M. Manring PhD, Jason Calhoun MD [object Object]

A History of Bracing for Idiopathic Scoliosis in North America

Reginald S. Fayssoux MD, Robert H. Cho MD, Martin J. Herman MD The care of the patient with scoliosis has a history extending back over two millennia with cast and brace treatment being a relatively recent endeavor, the modern era comprising just over half a century. Much of the previous literature provides a modest overview with emphasis on the history of the operative management. To better understand the current concepts of brace treatment of scoliosis, an appreciation of the history of bracing would be helpful. As such, we review the history of the treatment of scoliosis with an emphasis on modern brace treatment, primarily from a North American perspective. Our review utilizes consideration of historical texts as well as current treatises on the history of scoliosis and includes discussion of brace development with their proponents’ rationale for why they work along with an appraisal of their clinical outcomes. We provide an overview of the current standards of care and the braces typically employed toward that standard including: the Milwaukee brace, the Wilmington brace, the Boston brace, the Charleston brace, the Providence brace and the SpineCor brace. Finally, we discuss future trends including improvements in methods of determining the critical period of peak growth velocity in children with scoliosis, the exciting promise of gene markers for progressive scoliosis and “internal bracing” options.

Radiographic Classification of Complications of Instrumentation in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

John M. Flynn MD, Randal R. Betz MD, Michael F. O’Brien MD, Peter O. Newton MD In spinal deformity surgery, techniques and implants must be assessed for their safety and efficacy. Regulatory bodies, third-party payors, and patients will increasingly scrutinize treatment methods based on the frequency of adverse events. We therefore developed a classification of adverse hardware-related events using plain radiographic criteria. We analyzed the adverse events in 466 patients surgically treated for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis for a Type 1 (Lenke et al.) curve. We used plain radiographic films to define complications as either serious radiographic adverse events or radiographic adverse events in four technique groups: posterior spinal fusion with hooks and/or hybrid systems, posterior spinal fusion using mostly pedicle screws, open anterior spinal fusion, and thoracoscopic anterior spinal fusion. We defined serious radiographic adverse events as those requiring subsequent surgery. The minimum followup was 2 years. We found a reoperation rate ranging from 4.5% (open anterior spinal fusion) to 8.8% (posterior spinal fusion with hooks); we found no difference in the incidence of serious radiographic adverse events between surgical techniques. Among serious radiographic adverse events, the most common problems were revision for lumbar progression, rod breakage, and proximal screw pullout in the anterior spinal fusions and instrumentation removal for pain and infection in the posterior spinal fusions. We propose a new radiographic system of adverse hardware-related events for patients with Type 1 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.,[object Object]

Brace Management in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

Jonathan R. Schiller MD, Nikhil A. Thakur MD, Craig P. Eberson MD Skeletally immature patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis are at risk for curve progression. Although numerous nonoperative methods have been attempted, including physical therapy, exercise, massage, manipulation, and electrical stimulation, only bracing is effective in preventing curve progression and the subsequent need for surgery. Brace treatment is initiated as either full-time (TLSO, Boston) or nighttime (Charleston, Providence) wear, although patient compliance with either mode of bracing has been a documented problem. We review the natural history of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, identify the risks for curve progression, describe the types of braces available for treatment, and review the indications for and efficacy of brace treatment.,[object Object]

Do Intraoperative Radiographs in Scoliosis Surgery Reflect Radiographic Result?

Ronald A. Lehman MD, Lawrence G. Lenke MD, Melvin D. Helgeson MD, Tobin T. Eckel MD, Kathryn A. Keeler MD It is often difficult to predict postoperative radiographic curve magnitude and balance parameters while performing intraoperative correction during scoliosis surgery. We asked whether there was a radiographic correlation between intraoperative long-cassette scoliosis film and postoperative standing radiographs of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis with pedicle screw instrumentation. We retrospectively reviewed 44 patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis who underwent posterior instrumentation with pedicle screws. We made preoperative, intraoperative (after instrumentation and correction), and standing postoperative radiographic measurements (eg, curve magnitudes, coronal and sagittal balance, disc angles) and compared those for the intra- and postoperative radiographs. The intraoperative long-cassette scoliosis film correlated with the immediate postoperative standing film for all curve correction and balance parameters. The routine use of a long-cassette intraoperative scoliosis film provides the surgeon with a valuable tool to guide intraoperative decision-making and foreshadows the correction and balance obtained on the immediate postoperative film.,[object Object]

Vertebral Column Resection for the Treatment of Severe Spinal Deformity

Lawrence G. Lenke MD, Brenda A. Sides MA, Linda A. Koester BS, Marsha Hensley RN, Kathy M. Blanke RN

The ability to treat severe pediatric and adult spinal deformities through an all-posterior vertebral column resection (VCR) has obviated the need for a circumferential approach in primary and revision surgery, but there is limited literature evaluating this new approach. Our purpose was therefore to provide further support of this technique. We reviewed 43 patients who underwent a posterior-only VCR using pedicle screws, anteriorly positioned cages, and intraoperative spinal cord monitoring between 2002 and 2006. Diagnoses included severe scoliosis, global kyphosis, angular kyphosis, or kyphoscoliosis. Forty (93%) procedures were performed at L1 or cephalad in the spinal cord (SC) territory. Seven patients (18%) lost intraoperative neurogenic monitoring evoked potentials (NMEPs) data during correction with data returning to baseline after prompt surgical intervention. All patients after surgery were at their baseline or showed improved SC function, whereas no one worsened. Two patients had nerve root palsies postoperatively, which resolved spontaneously at 6 months and 2 weeks. Spinal cord monitoring (specifically NMEP) is mandatory to prevent neurologic complications. Although technically challenging, a single-stage approach offers dramatic correction in both primary and revision surgery of severe spinal deformities.,[object Object]

The Usefulness of VEPTR in the Older Child With Complex Spine and Chest Deformity

Amer F. Samdani MD, Tricia St. Hilaire BS, John B. Emans MD, John T. Smith MD, Kit Song MD, Robert J. Campbell MD, Randal R. Betz MD

The vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib (VEPTR) was originally designed to treat chest and spine deformities in young children. However, older children with complex spinal deformities may also benefit from placement of a VEPTR when vertebral column resections are deemed too risky neurologically. We report: (1) the changes in Cobb angle, T1 angle, and head tilt; and (2) the occurrence of complications in children older than 10 years of age treated with VEPTR. From a database of 214 patients treated in a Food and Drug Administration Investigational Device Exemption study of VEPTR, we identified 10 patients with assorted diagnoses who underwent surgery after age 10 and had a minimum of 24-month followup (mean, 39.6 months; range, 24–75 months). No patient sustained neurologic injury. Patients underwent an average of five lengthenings. The mean preoperative Cobb angle was 64.7° and improved to 48.4°. Head shift improved an average of 3.8 cm. Two device-related complications occurred (both in the same patient). Four patients have since undergone definitive spinal fusion. For a select group of patients 10 years of age or older, the VEPTR offers a reasonable alternative to potentially risky vertebral column resections for correcting deformities in selected patients.,[object Object]

Shilla Growing Rods in a Caprine Animal Model: A Pilot Study

Richard E. McCarthy MD, Daniel Sucato MD, Joseph L. Turner MS, Hong Zhang MD, MeLeah A. W. Henson MS, Kathryn McCarthy MD There are few good surgical options that allow for continued spinal growth in patients with early-onset scoliosis. The “Shilla” is a growth guidance system that does not require repeated surgical lengthenings. The Shilla system guides growth at the ends of dual rods with the apex of the curve corrected, fused, and fixed to the rods. The growth occurs through the extraperiosteally implanted pedicle screws that slide along the rods at either end of the construct. We implanted 11 2-month-old immature goats with the dual rod system and euthanized all 11 goats 6 months postoperatively. We evaluated plain radiographs, regular computed tomography, microcomputed tomography, physical and histologic examinations, and a microscopic wear analysis. All of the goat spines grew with the implants in place; growth occurred in both the thoracic and lumbar ends of the rods for a total average of 48 mm. None of the implants failed, although we observed minor wear at the rod/screw interface. Growth guidance with the Shilla rod system allowed for continued growth in this goat model.

Infection Rate after Spine Surgery in Cerebral Palsy is High and Impairs Results: Multicenter Analysis of Risk Factors and Treatment

Paul D. Sponseller MD, Suken A. Shah MD, Mark F. Abel MD, Peter O. Newton MD, Lynn Letko MD, Michelle Marks MS, PT [object Object],[object Object]

Shoulder Arthroplasties have Fewer Complications than Hip or Knee Arthroplasties in US Veterans

Edward V. Fehringer MD, Ted R. Mikuls MD, MSPH, Kaleb D. Michaud PhD, William G. Henderson PhD, James R. O’Dell MD Total shoulder arthroplasties (TSA) are being performed more commonly for treatment of arthritis, although fewer than either hip (THA) or knee (TKA) arthroplasties. Total shoulder arthroplasty also provides general health improvements that are comparable to THA. One study suggests TSAs are associated with lower morbidity and mortality than THAs and TKAs. To confirm and extend that study, we therefore examined the association of patient characteristics (sociodemographics, comorbid illness, and other risk factors) with 30-day complications for patients undergoing TSAs, THAs, or TKAs. We used data from the Veterans Administration (VA) National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) for fiscal years 1999 to 2006. Sociodemographics, comorbidities, health behaviors, operative factors, and complications (mortality, return to the operating room, readmission within 14 days, cardiovascular events, and infections) were available for 10,407 THAs, 23,042 TKAs, and 793 TSAs. Sociodemographic features were comparable among groups. The mean operative time was greater for TSAs (3.0 hours) than for TKAs (2.2 hours) and THAs (2.4 hours). The 30-day mortality rates were 1.2%, 1.1%, and 0.4% for THAs, TKAs, and TSAs, respectively. The corresponding postoperative complication rates were 7.6%, 6.8%, and 2.8%. Adjusting for multiple risk factors, complications, readmissions, and postoperative stays were less for TSAs versus THAs and TKAs. In a VA population, TSAs required more operative time but resulted in shorter stays, fewer complications, and fewer readmissions than THAs and TKAs.,[object Object]

Diagnosing Suspected Scaphoid Fractures: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Zhong-Gang Yin MD, Jian-Bing Zhang MD, Shi-Lian Kan MD, Xiao-Gang Wang MD Imaging protocols for suspected scaphoid fractures among investigators and hospitals are markedly inconsistent. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess and compare the diagnostic performance of bone scintigraphy, MRI, and CT for diagnosing suspected scaphoid fractures. Twenty-six studies were included. Sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic odds ratio were pooled separately and summary receiver operating characteristic curves were fitted for each modality. Meta-regression analyses were performed to compare these modalities. We obtained likelihood ratios derived from the pooled sensitivity and specificity and, using Bayes’ theorem, calculated the posttest probability by application of the tests. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, natural logarithm of the diagnostic odds ratio, and the positive and negative likelihood ratios were, respectively, 97%, 89%, 4.78, 8.82, and 0.03 for bone scintigraphy; 96%, 99%, 6.60, 96, and 0.04 for MRI; and 93%, 99%, 6.11, 93, and 0.07 for CT. Bone scintigraphy and MRI have equally high sensitivity and high diagnostic value for excluding scaphoid fracture; however, MRI is more specific and better for confirming scaphoid fracture. We believe additional studies are needed to assess diagnostic performance of CT, especially paired design studies or randomized controlled trials to compare CT with MRI or bone scintigraphy.,[object Object]

Capacitively Coupled Electric Field for Pain Relief in Patients with Vertebral Fractures and Chronic Pain

Maurizio Rossini PhD, Ombretta Viapiana PhD, Davide Gatti PhD, Francesca de Terlizzi JD, Silvano Adami PhD Fragility vertebral fractures often are associated with chronic back pain controlled by analgesic compounds. Capacitive coupling electrical stimulation is a type of electrical stimulation technology approved by the US FDA to noninvasively enhance fracture repair and spinal fusion. These uses suggest it would be a possible treatment for patients with back pain attributable to vertebral fractures. We therefore randomized 51 postmenopausal women with multiple fractures and chronic pain to the use of one of two indistinguishable devices delivering either the standard capacitive coupling electrical stimulation by Osteospine™ (active group) or low intensity pulse (control group). Twenty patients of the active group and 21 of the control group (80%) completed the study for a total duration of 3 months. The mean visual analog scale values for pain and the Quality of Life Questionnaire of the European Foundation for Osteoporosis (QUALEFFO) scores improved in both groups. We observed a relationship between hours of treatments and reductions in pain intensity only in the active group. Capacitive coupling electrical stimulation was not more effective than control treatment when comparing mean visual analog scale pain and QALEFFO scores in the two groups and when adjusting for the hours of treatment. However, the proportion of patients able to discontinue NSAIDs owing to elimination or reduction of pain was greater in the active group than in the control group. We interpret these findings as suggesting capacitive coupling electrical stimulation controls pain in some patients and reduces the use of NSAIDs.,[object Object]

Prospective Analysis of Hip Arthroscopy with 10-year Followup

J. W. Thomas Byrd MD, Kay S. Jones MSN, RN Arthroscopic surgery of the hip is a well-established technique with numerous recognized indications. Despite the well-accepted nature of this procedure, there have been no outcomes studies with extended followup. We investigated the response to hip arthroscopy in a consecutive series of patients with 10 years followup. Since 1993, all patients undergoing hip arthroscopy have been assessed prospectively with a modified Harris hip score preoperatively and then postoperatively at 3, 12, 24, 60, and 120 months. A cohort of 50 patients (52 hips) was identified who had achieved 10-year followup and represent the substance of this study. There was 100% followup. The average age of the patients was 38 years (range, 14–84 years), with 27 males and 23 females. The median improvement was 25 points (preoperative, 56 points; postoperative, 81 points). Fourteen patients were converted to THA and two died. Four patients underwent repeat arthroscopy. There were two complications in one patient. The presence of arthritis at the time of the index procedure was an indicator of poor prognosis. This study substantiates the long-term effectiveness of arthroscopy in the hip as treatment for various disorders, including labral pathology, chondral damage, synovitis, and loose bodies. Arthritis is an indicator of poor long-term outcomes with these reported methods.,[object Object]

Custom Cementless Stem Improves Hip Function in Young Patients at 15-year Followup

Xavier Flecher MD, Oliver Pearce MD, Sebastien Parratte MD, Jean-Manuel Aubaniac MD, Jean-Noel Argenson MD THA in young patients is challenging regarding restoration and survival because patients are young, active, and tend to have disturbed anatomy. We asked whether a three-dimensional custom cementless stem could restore hip function, decrease osteolysis and wear, and enhance stem survival in young patients. We retrospectively reviewed 212 patients (233 hips) younger than 50 years (mean, 40 years) at a followup of 5 to 16 years (mean, 10 years). The Merle D’Aubigné-Postel and Harris hip scores improved at last followup. No thigh pain was recorded for any of the patients; 187 of the 212 patients (88%) had full activity recovery, 206 had full range of motion, and 151 had a score greater than 80 points for all five categories of the Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome score. Five patients had femoral osteolysis not associated with pain. With revision for any reason as an end point, the survivorship was 87% (range, 77%–97%) at 15 years, and considering stem revision only, the survivorship was 93% (confidence interval, 90%–97%) at 15 years. Our data compare favorably with those from series using standard cementless stems at the same followup with a high percentage of patients achieving functional restoration and a low rate of complications.,[object Object]

Association of Osteonecrosis and Failure of Hip Resurfacing Arthroplasty

Jozef Zustin MD, Guido Sauter MD, M. Michael Morlock MD, Wolfgang Rüther MD, Michael Amling MD Osteonecrosis (ON) has been reported in femoral remnants removed after failure of hip resurfacing arthroplasty. Experimental and clinical studies have further described thermal effects of the cementation technique, damage of extraosseous blood vessels, and intraoperative hypoxemia as possible causative factors. We analyzed histologically a series of 123 retrieved specimens with a preoperative diagnosis other than ON to investigate the incidence and extent of advanced ON. ON was found in 88% of cases and associated with 60% (51 of a total of 85) of periprosthetic fractures. The fracture incidence correlated with the extent of ON. Collapse of necrotic tissue in three (2%) cases resulted in disconnection of the bone stock-femoral component. We observed smaller regions of superficial ON in the majority of the remaining femoral remnants with periprosthetic fractures and in hips that failed for reasons other than fracture.

Validity of Frozen Sections for Analysis of Periprosthetic Loosening Membranes

Stephan W. Tohtz MD, Michael Müller MD, Lars Morawietz MD, Tobias Winkler MD, PhD, Carsten Perka MD Clinical findings and blood parameters often are inconclusive in patients with periprosthetic joint infections. Among the accepted criteria for diagnosis, histologic analysis of debrided tissue can detect infection in most cases but does not allow intraoperative decision making. We evaluated the validity of intraoperative frozen sections for detection of prosthetic infections. The results from frozen and permanent sections of periprosthetic membranes of 64 consecutive patients who underwent exchange procedures after hip arthroplasty were compared using the histopathologic consensus classification of Morawietz et al. Blood parameters (erythrocyte sedimentation rate, leukocyte count, C-reactive protein) and culture results of preoperatively aspirated joint fluid and intraoperative tissue samples were correlated with the histologic results. In 50 patients (78.1%), agreement was found between the frozen and permanent sections. Two patients (3.1%) revealed a discrepancy between the two histologic methods. In 12 patients (18.8%), a diagnosis was not possible based on the frozen sections because the tissue samples were not representative enough for definite classification. For the analyzable cases (n = 52), the sensitivity of frozen-section histologic analysis was 86.6%, specificity 100%, and accuracy 96.2%. Our data support a recommendation for use of intraoperative frozen sections for diagnosis of septic versus aseptic loosening in revision hip surgery.,[object Object]

The Ischial Spine Sign: Does Pelvic Tilt and Rotation Matter?

Diganta K. Kakaty MD, Andreas F. Fischer MD, Harish S. Hosalkar MD, MBMS (Orth), FCPS (Orth), DNB (Orth), Klaus A. Siebenrock MD, Moritz Tannast MD Although the ischial spine sign (ISS) has been advocated to detect acetabular retroversion, it is unknown whether the sign is valid on anteroposterior (AP) pelvic radiographs with tilted or rotated pelves. We therefore evaluated reliability of the ISS as a tool for diagnosing acetabular retroversion in the presence of considerable pelvic tilt and/or malrotation. We obtained radiographs of 20 cadaver pelves in 19 different malorientations resulting in 380 pelvis images (760 hips) for evaluation. In addition, 129 clinical radiographs of patients’ hips that had varying pelvis orientations were reviewed. We found an overall sensitivity of 81% (90%), specificity of 70% (71%), positive predictive value of 77% (80.7%), and negative predictive value of 75% (85%) in the cadaver (patient) hips. Our data suggest the ISS is a valid tool for diagnosing acetabular retroversion on plain radiographs taken using a standardized technique regardless of the degree of pelvic tilt and rotation.

Loss of Tibial Bone Density in Patients with Rotating- or Fixed-platform TKA

Jacob T. Munro MBChB, Salil Pandit MBChB, Cameron G. Walker PhD, Mark Clatworthy MBChB, FRACS, Rocco P. Pitto MD, PhD, FRACS Little is known about tibial bone remodeling with TKA and its clinical relevance. We performed a randomized clinical trial to compare tibial bone density changes in cemented components with different bearing designs. Bone density changes were assessed using quantitative computed tomography (qCT)-assisted osteodensitometry. Twenty-eight rotating-platform and 26 fixed-platform cemented TKAs were included. The nonoperated contralateral side was used as a control. CT scans were performed postoperatively and 1 year and 2 years after the index operation. Cancellous bone density loss (up to 12.6% at 2 years) was observed in all proximal tibial regions in both cohorts. In contrast, we found lower cortical bone density loss (up to 3.6% at 2 years). We found no differences in bone loss between fixed- and rotating-platform implants. The decrease of cancellous bone density after TKA suggests stress transfer to the cortical bone.

The Geometry of the Trochlear Groove

Farhad Iranpour MD, Azhar M. Merican BM, MS(Orth), Wael Dandachli MRCS, Andrew A. Amis DSc(Eng), Justin P. Cobb FRCS

In the natural and prosthetic knees the position, shape, and orientation of the trochlea groove are three of the key determinants of function and dysfunction, yet the rules governing these three features remain elusive.

Unmet Needs and Waiting List Prioritization for Knee Arthroplasty

Mercè Comas PhD, Rubén Román MSc, José Maria Quintana MD, PhD, Xavier Castells MD, PhD

There is a high volume of unmet needs for knee arthroplasty in the population despite the increase in surgery rates. Given the long waiting times to have a knee arthroplasty, some governments have proposed prioritization systems for patients on waiting lists based on their level of need.

Preoperative Pain Catastrophizing Predicts Pain Outcome after Knee Arthroplasty

Daniel L. Riddle PT, PhD, FAPTA, James B. Wade PhD, William A. Jiranek MD, Xiangrong Kong PhD Psychologic status is associated with poor outcome after knee arthroplasty yet little is known about which specific psychologic disorders or pain-related beliefs contribute to poor outcome. To enhance the therapeutic effect of a psychologic intervention, the specific disorders or pain-related beliefs that contributed to poor outcome should be identified. We therefore determined whether specific psychologic disorders (ie, depression, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder) or health-related beliefs (ie, self-efficacy, pain catastrophizing, fear of movement) are associated with poor outcome after knee arthroplasty. We conducted a cohort study of 140 patients undergoing knee arthroplasty at two hospitals. Patients completed a series of psychologic measures, provided various sociodemographic data, and were followed for 6 months. Patients were dichotomized to groups with either a favorable or a poor outcome using WOMAC pain and function scores and evidence-based approaches. After adjusting for confounding variables, we found pain catastrophizing was the only consistent psychologic predictor of poor WOMAC pain outcome. No psychologic predictors were associated consistently with poor WOMAC function outcome. An intervention focusing on pain catastrophizing seems to have potential for improving pain outcome in patients prone to catastrophizing pain.,[object Object]

In Vivo Kinematics after a Cruciate-substituting TKA

Jan Victor MD, John Kyle P. Mueller BS, Richard D. Komistek PhD, Adrija Sharma PhD, Matthew C. Nadaud MD, Johan Bellemans MD, PhD Patterns of motion in the native knee show substantial variability. Guided motion prosthetic designs offer stability but may limit natural variability. To assess these limits, we therefore determined the in vivo kinematic patterns for patients having a cruciate-substituting TKA of one design and determined the intersurgeon variability associated with a guided-motion prosthetic design. Three-dimensional femorotibial contact positions were evaluated for 86 TKAs in 80 subjects from three different surgeons using fluoroscopy during a weightbearing deep knee bend. The average posterior femoral rollback of the medial and lateral condyles for all TKAs from full extension to maximum flexion was −14.0 mm and −23.0 mm, respectively. The average axial tibiofemoral rotation from full extension to maximum flexion for all TKAs was 10.8°. The average weightbearing range of motion (ROM) was 109º (range, 60º–150º; standard deviation, 18.7º). Overall, the TKA showed axial rotation patterns similar to those of the normal knee, although less in magnitude. Surgeon-to-surgeon comparison revealed dissimilarities, showing the surgical technique and soft tissue handling influence kinematics in a guided-motion prosthetic design.,[object Object]

Which Are the Most Frequently Used Outcome Instruments in Studies on Total Ankle Arthroplasty?

Florian D. Naal MD, Franco M. Impellizzeri PhD, Pascal F. Rippstein MD The number of studies reporting on outcomes after total ankle arthroplasty is continuously increasing. As the use of valid outcome measures represents the cornerstone for successful clinical research, we aimed to identify the most frequently used outcome instruments in ankle arthroplasty studies and to analyze the evidence to support their use in terms of different quality criteria. A systematic review of the literature identified 15 outcome instruments reported in 79 original studies. The most commonly used measures were the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society hindfoot score (n = 41), the Kofoed ankle score (n = 21), a visual analog scale assessing pain (n = 15), and the generic SF-36 (n = 6). Eight additional instruments were used only once or twice. The American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society and Kofoed instruments include a clinical examination and score up to 100 points. Evidence to support their use in terms of validity, reliability, responsiveness, and interpretability is limited, raising the question whether their use is justified. Self-reported questionnaires related to ankle osteoarthritis or arthroplasty are rather disregarded in the current literature, and only the Foot Function Index is associated with evidence in terms of the above-mentioned quality criteria. Future research is warranted to improve the outcome assessment after total ankle arthroplasty.

Metastatic Giant Cell Tumor of Bone: Are There Associated Factors and Best Treatment Modalities?

undefined Seethalakshmi Viswanathan MD, N. A. Jambhekar MD, DPB Giant cell tumors of bone are sometimes locally aggressive and may metastasize, although uncommonly. We attempted to identify associations of clinical and histopathologic parameters with metastasis, the long-term outcome with metastases, and the best treatment. We identified distant metastases in 24 of 470 patients with giant cell tumors during a 20-year period. The median age of these 24 patients at presentation was 26 years (range, 16–76 years), and the male:female ratio was 1.6:1, with no predilection for primary site. Metastasis occurred at a mean of 2 years (range, 4 months–11 years) after initial diagnosis. Sites for distant metastases were the lung (21 of 24 patients), scalp, calf muscle, and regional lymph nodes. The 24 patients had a mean followup of 3.5 years (range, 0–16 years). Thirteen of the 24 patients has local recurrence before or at the time of metastasis. Two patients refused treatment, eight underwent metastasectomy, and 14 were inoperable (four had chemotherapy, 10 were treated symptomatically). We observed disease progression with hemoptysis in one of 14 patients. None of the patients died of their metastatic disease. None of the risk factors we studied was associated with metastasis in giant cell tumors. Although the overall outcome was favorable, metastasectomy is recommended where feasible.,[object Object]

Results of 32 Allograft-prosthesis Composite Reconstructions of the Proximal Femur

David J. Biau MD, Frédérique Larousserie MD, Fabrice Thévenin MD, Sophie Piperno-Neumann MD, Philippe Anract MD The use of allograft-prosthesis composites for reconstruction after bone tumor resection at the proximal femur has generated considerable interest since the mid1980s on the basis that their use would improve function and survival, and restore bone stock. Although functional improvement has been documented, it is unknown whether these composites survive long periods and whether they restore bone stock. We therefore determined long-term allograft-prosthesis composite survival, identified major complications that led to revision, and determined whether allograft bone stock could be spared at the time of revision. We also compared the radiographic appearance of allografts sterilized by gamma radiation and fresh-frozen allografts. We retrospectively reviewed 32 patients with bone malignancy in the proximal femur who underwent reconstruction with a cemented allograft-prosthesis composite. The allograft-prosthesis composite was a primary reconstruction for 23 patients and a revision procedure for nine. The minimum followup was 2 months (median, 68 months; range, 2–232 months). The cumulative incidence of revision for any reason was 14% at 5 years (95% confidence interval, 1%–28%) and 19% at 10 years (95% confidence interval, 3%–34%). Nine patients (28%) had revision of the reconstruction during followup; four of these patients had revision surgery for infection. Allografts sterilized by gamma radiation showed worse resorption than fresh-frozen allografts. Based on reported results, allograft-composite prostheses do not appear to improve survival compared with megaprostheses.,[object Object]

Acetabular Retroversion in Military Recruits with Femoral Neck Stress Fractures

Kevin M. Kuhn MD, Anthony I. Riccio MD, Nelson S. Saldua MD, Jeffrey Cassidy MD Acetabular retroversion (AR) alters load distribution across the hip and is more prevalent in pathologic conditions involving the hip. We hypothesized the abnormal orientation and mechanical changes may predispose certain individuals to stress injuries of the femoral neck. We retrospectively reviewed the anteroposterior (AP) pelvic radiographs of 54 patients (108 hips) treated for a femoral neck stress fracture (FNSF) and compared these radiographs with those for a control group of patients with normal pelvic radiographs. We determined presence of a crossover sign (COS), femoral neck abnormalities, and neck shaft angle. The prevalence of a positive COS was greater in patients with stress fractures than in the control subjects (31 of 54 [57%] versus 17 of 54 [31%], respectively) and higher than for control subjects reported in the literature. Thirteen patients had radiographic changes of the femoral neck consistent with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). These radiographic abnormalities were seen more commonly in retroverted hips. A greater incidence of AR was noted in patients with FNSF. Potential implications include more aggressive screening of military recruits with AR and the new onset of hip pain. Finally, we present an algorithm we use to diagnose and treat these relatively rare FNSFs.,[object Object]

Allografting in Locked Nailing and Interfragmentary Wiring for Humeral Nonunions

Wei-Peng Lin MD, Jinn Lin MD, PhD In this prospective study, we compared outcomes after repair of humeral nonunions when morsellized fresh-frozen allograft or autograft was used to augment repair by intramedullary nailing. Sixty-five patients with humeral shaft nonunions of greater than 6 months’ duration and gross instability at the nonunion site were included and treated by locked nailing, interfragmentary wiring, and bone grafting. Graft type was determined by patient preference. Outcomes assessed included union rate and functional recovery of the arm. Secondary end points included operative blood loss, operation time, hospital stay, time to fracture healing, and complications. Twenty-eight patients with autografts and 36 with allografts were followed up more than 2 years. The baseline conditions of the two groups were similar. The autograft group had greater blood loss and longer operative time than the allograft group. The autograft group also had a longer hospital stay. The healing rate, time to healing, and functional scores did not differ between these two groups. In the autograft group, 43% reported pain and limited mobility as a result of the donor site. We concluded that when used in association with locked nailing for humeral nonunions, allografts can achieve treatment results similar to autografts but without donor site complications.,[object Object]

Sensitivity of Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate and C-reactive Protein in Childhood Bone and Joint Infections

Markus Pääkkönen MD, Markku J. T. Kallio MD, Pentti E. Kallio MD, Heikki Peltola MD In addition to the examination of clinical signs, several laboratory markers have been measured for diagnostics and monitoring of pediatric septic bone and joint infections. Traditionally erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and leukocyte cell count have been used, whereas C-reactive protein (CRP) has gained in popularity. We monitored 265 children at ages 3 months to 15 years with culture-positive osteoarticular infections with a predetermined series of ESR, CRP, and leukocyte count measurements. On admission, ESR exceeded 20 mm/hour in 94% and CRP exceeded 20 mg/L in 95% of the cases, the mean (± standard error of the mean) being 51 ± 2 mm/hour and 87 ± 4 mg/L, respectively. ESR normalized in 24 days and CRP in 10 days. Elevated CRP gave a slightly better sensitivity in diagnostics than ESR, but best sensitivity was gained with the combined use of ESR and CRP (98%). Elevated ESR or CRP was seen in all cases during the first 3 days. Measuring ESR and CRP on admission can help the clinician rule out an acute osteoarticular infection. CRP normalizes faster than ESR, providing a clear advantage in monitoring recovery.,[object Object]

The Effect of Soaking Allograft in Bisphosphonate: A Pilot Dose-response Study

Thomas Jakobsen MD, PhD, Jørgen Baas MD, PhD, Joan E. Bechtold PhD, Brian Elmengaard MD, PhD, Kjeld Søballe MD, DMSc

Long-term survival of uncemented total joint replacements relies on osseointegration. With reduced bone stock impacted morselized allograft enhances early implant fixation but is subject to resorption.

Increasing the Osmolarity of Joint Irrigation Solutions May Avoid Injury to Cartilage: A Pilot Study

Anish K. Amin MBChB, MRCSEd, James S. Huntley DPhil(Oxon), FRCS, A. Hamish R. W. Simpson DM(Oxon), FRCS, Andrew C. Hall PhD Saline (0.9%, 285 mOsm) and Hartmann’s solution (255 mOsm) are two commonly used joint irrigation solutions that alter the extracellular osmolarity of in situ chondrocytes during articular surgery. We asked whether varying the osmolarity of these solutions influences in situ chondrocyte death in mechanically injured articular cartilage. We initially exposed osteochondral tissue harvested from the metacarpophalangeal joints of 3-year-old cows to solutions of 0.9% saline and Hartmann’s solution of different osmolarity (100–600 mOsm) for 2 minutes to allow in situ chondrocytes to respond to the altered osmotic environment. The full thickness of articular cartilage then was “injured” with a fresh scalpel. Using confocal laser scanning microscopy, in situ chondrocyte death at the injured cartilage edge was quantified spatially as a function of osmolarity at 2.5 hours. Increasing the osmolarity of 0.9% saline and Hartmann’s solution to 600 mOsm decreased in situ chondrocyte death in the superficial zone of injured cartilage. Compared with 0.9% saline, Hartmann’s solution was associated with greater chondrocyte death in the superficial zone of injured cartilage, but not when the osmolarity of both solutions was increased to 600 mOsm. These experiments may have implications for the design of irrigation solutions used during arthroscopic and open articular surgery.

P Value and the Theory of Hypothesis Testing: An Explanation for New Researchers

David Jean Biau MD, Brigitte M. Jolles MD Msc, MD, Raphaël Porcher PhD In the 1920s, Ronald Fisher developed the theory behind the p value and Jerzy Neyman and Egon Pearson developed the theory of hypothesis testing. These distinct theories have provided researchers important quantitative tools to confirm or refute their hypotheses. The p value is the probability to obtain an effect equal to or more extreme than the one observed presuming the null hypothesis of no effect is true; it gives researchers a measure of the strength of evidence against the null hypothesis. As commonly used, investigators will select a threshold p value below which they will reject the null hypothesis. The theory of hypothesis testing allows researchers to reject a null hypothesis in favor of an alternative hypothesis of some effect. As commonly used, investigators choose Type I error (rejecting the null hypothesis when it is true) and Type II error (accepting the null hypothesis when it is false) levels and determine some critical region. If the test statistic falls into that critical region, the null hypothesis is rejected in favor of the alternative hypothesis. Despite similarities between the two, the p value and the theory of hypothesis testing are different theories that often are misunderstood and confused, leading researchers to improper conclusions. Perhaps the most common misconception is to consider the p value as the probability that the null hypothesis is true rather than the probability of obtaining the difference observed, or one that is more extreme, considering the null is true. Another concern is the risk that an important proportion of statistically significant results are falsely significant. Researchers should have a minimum understanding of these two theories so that they are better able to plan, conduct, interpret, and report scientific experiments.

Case Report: Osteochondritis Dissecans in Twins: Treatment with Fresh Osteochondral Grafts

Timothy Mackie MPAS, PA-C, Ross M. Wilkins MD, MS Osteochondritis dissecans is a lesion of subchondral bone with subsequent involvement of the overlying cartilage. Although the etiology of the disease is unknown, mechanical, traumatic, and ischemic etiologies have been suggested, in addition to developmental and genetic factors. There are several treatment options depending on the stage of the disease and surgeon preference. The use of a fresh osteochondral allograft for treatment of a lesion of the femoral condyle is relatively new, and we report its use in a unique situation involving identical twins who both presented with osteochondritis dissecans of the same anatomic location within 2 years of each other. Since these were identical lesions in identical twins, this commonality supports the suggestion that some genetic component may be present in the etiology, especially in this situation where a genetic connection existed. We recommend genetic studies to determine the extent of genetic influence on the disease.

Case Report: Cementless Stem Stabilization after Intraoperative Fracture: A Radiostereometric Analysis

David Campbell BMBS, FRACS, PhD, Graham Mercer BMBS, FRACS, Kjell G. Nilsson MSc, BVSc, DVSc, Stuart A. Callary BAppSc We present the case of a patient with intraoperative femoral fracture during THA, which was repaired using cerclage fixation and insertion of an hydroxyapatite-coated cementless stem. The patient was evaluated postoperatively using radiostereometry during a 2-year course, and despite a large amount of subsidence and rotation, stabilization occurred and was maintained by 6 months. By evaluating the pattern of stem migration after intraoperative fracture, this case shows, even in the presence of instability, a successful clinical outcome can be achieved using an hydroxyapatite-coated cementless stem.

Letter to the Editor: Trans-upper-sternal Approach to the Cervicothoracic Junction

Keith D. K. Luk MBBS; MCh(Orth); FRCSE, FHKAM, Kenneth M. C. Cheung MD, FRCS, FHKAM, John C. Y. Leong OBE, SBS, MBBS, FRCS, FRCSE, FRACS

Erratum to: THA With Delta Ceramic on Ceramic: Results of a Multicenter Investigational Device Exemption Trial

William G. Hamilton MD, James P. McAuley MD, Douglas A. Dennis MD, Jeffrey A. Murphy MS, Thomas J. Blumenfeld MD, Joel Politi MD
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