Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research ®

A Publication of The Association of Bone and Joint Surgeons ®

Published in
Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research®
Volume 466 | Issue 12 | Dec, 2008

Methods for Assessing Leg Length Discrepancy

Sanjeev Sabharwal MD, Ajay Kumar MD The use of accurate and reliable clinical and imaging modalities for quantifying leg-length discrepancy (LLD) is vital for planning appropriate treatment. While there are several methods for assessing LLD, we questioned how these compared. We therefore evaluated the reliability and accuracy of the different methods and explored the advantages and limitations of each method. Based on a systematic literature search, we identified 42 articles dealing with various assessment tools for measuring LLD. Clinical methods such as use of a tape measure and standing blocks were noted as useful screening tools, but not as accurate as imaging modalities. While several studies noted that the scanogram provided reliable measurements with minimal magnification, a full-length standing AP computed radiograph (teleoroentgenogram) is a more comprehensive assessment technique, with similar costs at less radiation exposure. We recommend use of a CT scanogram, especially the lateral scout view in patients with flexion deformities at the knee. Newer modalities such as MRI are promising but need further investigation before being routinely employed for assessment of LLD.,[object Object]

Limb Lengthening and Then Insertion of an Intramedullary Nail: A Case-matched Comparison

S. Robert Rozbruch MD, Dawn Kleinman BA, Austin T. Fragomen MD, Svetlana Ilizarov MD Distraction osteogenesis is an effective method for lengthening, deformity correction, and treatment of nonunions and bone defects. The classic method uses an external fixator for both distraction and consolidation leading to lengthy times in frames and there is a risk of refracture after frame removal. We suggest a new technique: lengthening and then nailing (LATN) technique in which the frame is used for gradual distraction and then a reamed intramedullary nail inserted to support the bone during the consolidation phase, allowing early removal of the external fixator. We performed a retrospective case-matched comparison of patients lengthened with LATN (39 limbs in 27 patients) technique versus the classic (34 limbs in 27 patients). The LATN group wore the external fixator for less time than the classic group (12 versus 29 weeks). The LATN group had a lower external fixation index (0.5 versus 1.9) and a lower bone healing index (0.8 versus 1.9) than the classic group. LATN confers advantages over the classic method including shorter times needed in external fixation, quicker bone healing, and protection against refracture. There are also advantages over the lengthening over a nail and internal lengthening nail techniques.,[object Object]

Circular External Fixation Frames with Divergent Half Pins: A Pilot Biomechanical Study

Christopher Lenarz MD, Gary Bledsoe PhD, J. Tracy Watson MD The use of hexapod circular external fixators has simplified the ability to correct complex limb deformities without cumbersome frame reconfigurations. These frames are applied primarily using half pin mountings and may be difficult to utilize given the constraints of traditional half pin constructs. We compared the biomechanical performance of simplified divergent half pin frames to mountings currently being utilized for application of hexapod frames. Three 6-mm half pins per limb segment were placed into sawbones at 60° divergent angles in both the sagittal and coronal planes in a 2-cm diaphyseal fracture gap model. Pin mountings were attached to a standardized four-ring construct. This was compared to similar four-ring frames with two differing pin/wire configurations: (1) two tensioned wires per ring placed at 90° angles, a total eight wires; and (2) two 5-mm half pins per ring placed at 90° angles, a total eight half pins. The divergent 6-mm half pin frames demonstrated similar performance compared the standardized tensioned wire and 5-mm half pin frames in terms of axial micromotion and angular deflection. Based on the mechanical performance of these divergent half pin frames we believe they can be used clinically without detrimental consequences.

A One-wire Method for Anatomic Reduction of Tibial Fractures with Ilizarov Frame

Giovanni Lovisetti MD, Lorenzo Bettella MD Traditional external fixator techniques do not always correct minor residual malalignment. We asked whether using a one-wire method that corrects minor malalignment with an olive traction wire placed in the plane of the deformity allowed (1) uniform healing, (2) proper alignment, and (3) adequate reduction of fracture gaps. We retrospectively evaluated 72 patients in whom we used closed tibial fracture reduction using a circular external frame. We identified the plane of the residual deformity after alignment on a traction table using a C-arm. In this plane, the final correction was performed with traction through an olive wire. Satisfactory alignment (less than 3° deviation from normal) was obtained in 68 of the 72 patients (94%), and satisfactory reduction (gaps less than 2 mm) attained in 51 (71%). In no case was the fracture site opened surgically. Four patients underwent additional alignment correction with conical washers outside the operating room but no other efforts were needed to obtain further reduction after the initial surgery. Fractures healed in an average of 20 weeks. We observed no major infections. The Ilizarov frame has been a valuable tool to achieve alignment and anatomic or near anatomic reduction of closed tibial fractures.,[object Object]

Correlation of Shear to Compression for Progressive Fracture Obliquity

David W. Lowenberg MD, Sean Nork MD, Frederick M. Abruzzo MD The accompanying shear force at the point of bone opposition is an important factor inherent to tibial fracture stability during axial loading. We determined at which angle of fracture obliquity shearing becomes a dominant force after stabilization with circular external fixation, and how modifications to the external fixator can reduce this effect. We constructed tibial fracture models with a successively increasing fracture angle obliquely (from 0° to 60°) to determine the stability in the classic Ilizarov frame and subsequent frame modifications during axial loading (maximum, 1000 N). Stability was determined by measuring the fracture line displacement for each fracture obliquity model after an applied axial load. Fracture line displacement was recorded as coordinate component changes as measured by an ultrasonic digitizer. We defined construct stability as less than 2 mm of fracture line migration with loading. More than 3500 data points were collected for this study. The classic Ilizarov construct successfully stabilized fractures with up to 30° of fracture obliquity, after which divergent instability occurs. The addition of proximal and distal perpendicular half-pins provides little benefit. Arced wires provided stability up to 40° fracture obliquity. A formal steerage pin construct provided stability for all fracture models (up to 60° of fracture obliquity) with all applied loads (up to 1000-N axial load).

DEXA as a Predictor of Fixator Removal in Distraction Osteogenesis

Neil Saran MD, FRCSC, Reggie C. Hamdy MD, FRCSC Premature removal of the fixator after a lengthening procedure can result in gradual bending or acute fracture of the regenerate. We reviewed the records of 26 patients who underwent 28 limb lengthenings between 1997 and 2005 to assess the post lengthening regenerate fracture rate and bone healing index when using dual energy xray absorptiometry (DEXA) to aid in deciding on when to remove the fixator. Sixteen male and 10 female patients with an average age at lengthening of 12.3 years underwent an average lengthening of 5.2 cm (range, 3–9.1 cm). Nineteen femurs and nine tibiae were lengthened. Serial monthly DEXA scans were analyzed for bone mineral density. Bone healing indices and post fixator removal complications were assessed. The fixators were removed once the bone mineral density had plateaued to a less than 10% increase and plain radiographs showed no obvious defects precluding fixator removal. There were no regenerate fractures and only one fracture in the proximal segment of the lengthened bone after apparatus removal and the healing index for the series averaged 47 d/cm (range, 20–73 d/cm). Using serial DEXA scans during the consolidation phase of lengthening has a low rate (3.6%) of fractures while maintaining an acceptable bone healing index without excessively increasing fixation time.,[object Object]

Percutaneous Nonviral Delivery of Hepatocyte Growth Factor in an Osteotomy Gap Promotes Bone Repair in Rabbits: A Preliminary Study

Hidenori Matsubara MD, Hiroyuki Tsuchiya MD, PhD, Koji Watanabe MD, PhD, Akihiko Takeuchi MD, PhD, Katsuro Tomita MD, PhD Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) was initially identified in cultured hepatocytes and subsequently reported to induce angiogenic, morphogenic, and antiapoptotic activity in various tissues. These properties suggest a potential influence of HGF on bone healing. We asked if gene transfer of human HGF (hHGF) into an osteotomy gap with a hemagglutinating virus of Japan-envelope (HVJ-E) vector promotes bone healing in rabbits. HVJ-E that contained either hHGF or control plasmid was percutaneously injected into the osteotomy gap of rabbit tibias on Day 14. The osteotomy gap was evaluated by radiography, pQCT, mechanical tests, and histology at Week 8. The expression of hHGF was evaluated by reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry at Week 3. Radiography, pQCT, and histology suggested the hHGF group had faster fracture healing. Mechanical tests demonstrated the hHGF group had greater mechanical strength. The injected tissues at 3 weeks expressed hHGF mRNA by reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction. hHGF-positive immunohistochemical staining was observed in various cells at the osteotomy gap at Week 3. The data suggest delivery of hHGF plasmid into the osteotomy gap promotes fracture repair, and HGF could become a novel agent for fracture treatment.

Bone Graft Harvest Using a New Intramedullary System

Mohan V. Belthur MD, Janet D. Conway MD, Gaurav Jindal MD, Ashish Ranade MD, John E. Herzenberg MD Obtaining autogenous bone graft from the iliac crest can entail substantial morbidity. Alternatively, bone graft can be harvested from long bones using an intramedullary (IM) harvesting system. We measured bone graft volume obtained from the IM canals of the femur and tibia and documented the complications of the harvesting technique. Donor site pain and the union rate were compared between the IM and the traditional iliac crest bone graft (ICBG) harvest. Forty-one patients (23 male, 18 female) with an average age of 44.9 years (range, 15–78 years) had graft harvested from long bones using an IM harvest system (femoral donor site, 37 patients; tibial donor site, four patients). Forty patients (23 male, 17 female; average age, 46.4 years; range, 15–77 years) underwent anterior ICBG harvest. We administered patient surveys to both groups to determine pain intensity and frequency. IM group reported lower pain scores than the ICBG group during all postoperative periods. Mean graft volume for the IM harvest group was 40.3 mL (range, 25–75 mL) (graft volume was not obtained for the ICBG group). Using an intramedullary system to harvest autogenous bone graft from the long bones is safe provided a meticulous technique is used.,[object Object]

Periosteal Grafting for Congenital Pseudarthrosis of the Tibia: A Preliminary Report

Ahmed M. Thabet MD, Dror Paley MD, Mehmet Kocaoglu MD, Levent Eralp MD, John E. Herzenberg MD, Omer Naci Ergin MD The results of treatment of congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia (CPT) are frequently unsatisfactory because of the need for multiple operations for recalcitrant nonunion, residual deformities, and limb-length discrepancies (LLD). Although the etiology of CPT is basically unknown, recent reports suggest the periosteum is the primary site for the pathologic processes in CPT. We hypothesized complete excision of the diseased periosteum and the application of a combined approach including free periosteal grafting, bone grafting, and intramedullary (IM) nailing of both the tibia and fibula combined with Ilizarov fixation would improve union rates and reduce refracture rates. We retrospectively reviewed 20 patients at two centers. The minimum followup was 2 years (mean, 4.3 years; range, 2–10.7 years). Union was achieved after the primary operation in all patients. Ten refractures occurred in eight of the 20 patients (two each in two patients, one each in six patients). Seven patients underwent seven secondary surgical procedures to simultaneously treat refracture and angular deformities. We used bisphosphonate as adjuvant therapy in three patients with refracture without subsequent refracture. We performed no amputations in these 20 patients. All patients were braced through skeletal maturity. Combining periosteal and bone grafting, IM nailing, and Ilizarov fixation is an effective treatment. IM nailing decreases the severity of subsequent fracture.,[object Object]

Managing Flexion Knee Deformity Using a Circular Frame

Gamal Ahmed Hosny MD, Mohamed Fadel MD Knee flexion deformity can cause marked physical disability. Acute correction, whether nonoperative or operative, may lead to serious complications. We treated 50 patients (71 knees) between 1994 and 2002 with the Ilizarov external fixator. The deformity was gradually corrected using Ilizarov principles. Of the 50 patients, 29 were affected unilaterally and 21 bilaterally. In 15 patients, there were associated deformities. In no patient did we surgically release soft tissues; in two patients with arthrodesed or congenitally fused knees, we performed osteotomy before distraction. All patients were assessed clinically and radiographically. We assessed knee flexion angle, range of motion, stability, presence of pain, and healing index. After a minimum followup of 1 year (mean 3.7 years; range, 1–8 years), 18 of 20 of the preoperatively nonambulatory patients having bilateral surgery could walk at last followup. Complications included pin tract infection in all patients, knee subluxation in three patients, and fracture related to treatment in seven patients. We believe gradual correction using a circular frame an effective method to treat flexion knee contractures. In patients with bilateral deformities, improvement in functional activity may be expected in most patients.,[object Object]

Tibial Lengthening: Extraarticular Calcaneotibial Screw to Prevent Ankle Equinus

Mohan V. Belthur MD, Dror Paley MD, Gaurav Jindal MD, Rolf D. Burghardt MD, Stacy C. Specht MPA, John E. Herzenberg MD Between 2003 and 2006, we used an extraarticular, cannulated, fully threaded posterior calcaneotibial screw to prevent equinus contracture in 10 patients (four male and six female patients, 14 limbs) undergoing tibial lengthening with the intramedullary skeletal kinetic distractor. Diagnoses were fibular hemimelia (two), mesomelic dwarfism (two), posteromedial bow (one), hemihypertrophy (one), poliomyelitis (one), achondroplasia (one), posttraumatic limb-length discrepancy (one), and hypochondroplasia (one). Average age was 24.5 years (range, 15–54 years). The screw (length, typically 125 mm; diameter, 7 mm) was inserted with the ankle in 10° dorsiflexion. Gastrocnemius soleus recession was performed in two patients to achieve 10° dorsiflexion. Average lengthening was 4.9 cm (range, 3–7 cm). Screws were removed after a mean 3.3 months (range, 2–6 months). Preoperative ankle range of motion was regained within 6 months of screw removal. No neurovascular complications were encountered, and no patients experienced equinus contracture. We also conducted a cadaveric study in which one surgeon inserted screws in eight cadaveric legs under image intensifier control. The flexor hallucis longus muscle belly was the closest anatomic structure noted during dissection. The screw should be inserted obliquely from upper lateral edge of the calcaneus and aimed lateral in the tibia to avoid the flexor hallucis longus muscle.,[object Object]

Pediatric Deformity Correction Using a Multiaxial Correction Fixator

James J. McCarthy MD, Ashish Ranade MD, Richard S. Davidson MD Circular fixators have been used successfully to correct multiplanar deformities but are often cumbersome and may be difficult to apply. We determined whether a monolateral fixator, which allows for correction of angular deformity and displacement in three planes, can correct lower extremity deformities to within normal radiographic means (anatomic lateral distal femoral angle, anatomic medial proximal tibial angle, and tibial femoral angle). We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records and radiographs of 22 consecutive patients (25 limbs) who underwent deformity correction using a new multiaxial monolateral external fixator. The patients were 4 to 16 years of age. We had a minimum 1.2-year followup (mean, 2.14 years; range, 1.2–3.1 years). Those with primary femoral and tibial deformities had improvements in the mean deviation from normal of the anatomic lateral distal femoral angle, anatomic medial proximal tibial angle and tibial femoral angle. Patients with Blount’s disease had improvements in the mean anatomic medial proximal tibial angle from 59.9º to 87.8º. Five patients had complications (two pin site infections, one premature consolidation, one knee flexion contracture, one recurrence of varus). Six patients developed secondary deformities, all of which were corrected using the primary or secondary hinge. We conclude this fixator can produce satisfactory results with relatively few complications.,[object Object]

Femoral Deformity Correction in Children and Young Adults Using Taylor Spatial Frame

Salih Marangoz MD, David S. Feldman MD, Debra A. Sala MS, PT, Joshua E. Hyman MD, Michael G. Vitale MD, MPH The Taylor spatial frame (TSF) has been used commonly in children and young adults. Its use in the tibia is more extensively studied and applied than in the femur. We asked whether normal alignment can be achieved with accuracy during correction of femoral deformities while avoiding major complications in children and young adults. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical and radiographic records of 20 patients (22 limbs), ages 5.9 to 24.6 years, who underwent a TSF for femoral deformity. Etiology included a number of diagnoses of the pediatric age. Minimum followup was 4.5 months (mean, 15.7 months; range, 4.5–35 months). The mean time in frame was 6.2 months (range, 2.6–19 months). Frontal and sagittal plane deformities were corrected to within normal values. A mean limb lengthening of 4.9 cm (range, 1.5–9 cm) was performed in eight femora in seven of which the limb length discrepancy was a secondary concern. External fixation index in the lengthening subgroup was 2.2 months/cm. The 15 complications in 13 limbs included pin tract infection, knee stiffness, delayed union, skin irritation, and posterior knee subluxation. No complications occurred in nine limbs. Computer-assisted femoral deformity correction with six-axis deformity analysis and the TSF is an accurate and safe technique in children and young adults.,[object Object]

Do Outcomes Differ after Rotator Cuff Repair for Patients Receiving Workers’ Compensation?

R. Balyk MD, FRCS (C), C. Luciak-Corea BSc, PT, D. Otto MD, FRCS (C), D. Baysal MD, FRCS (C), L. Beaupre PT, PhD Comparisons of outcomes after rotator cuff repair between Worker’s Compensation Board (WCB) recipients and nonrecipients generally do not consider patient, injury, and shoulder characteristics. We compared preoperative differences between WCB recipients and nonrecipients and determined the impact on their 6-month postoperative outcome. We evaluated a prospective cohort of 141 patients with full-thickness rotator cuff tears, 36 of whom (26%) were WCB recipients, preoperatively and 3 and 6 months after rotator cuff repair. Their mean age was 54.0 ± 10.4 years (standard deviation) and 102 (72%) patients were male. Shoulder range of motion, Western Ontario Rotator Cuff (WORC) index, and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons’ score were used to evaluate outcomes. We performed regression analyses to control for baseline differences in age, baseline scores, smoking status, symptom duration, injury type, and associated biceps disorder between WCB recipients and nonrecipients. WCB recipients were younger and more likely to smoke, have a traumatic injury, and undergo surgery within 6 months of injury. WCB recipients had lower recovery for all outcomes when these differences were not considered but when differences were accounted for, only 6-month WORC scores were lower in WCB recipients. Clinicians should consider preoperative characteristics before concluding WCB recipients experience less recovery after surgical repair.,[object Object]

Instrumented Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion in Adult Spondylolisthesis

Ching-Hsiao Yu MD, Chen-Ti Wang MD, PhD, Po-Quang Chen MD, PhD It is unclear whether using artificial cages increases fusion rates compared with use of bone chips alone in posterior lumbar interbody fusion for patients with lumbar spondylolisthesis. We hypothesized artificial cages for posterior lumbar interbody fusion would provide better clinical and radiographic outcomes than bone chips alone. We assumed solid fusion would provide good clinical outcomes. We clinically and radiographically followed 34 patients with spondylolisthesis having posterior lumbar interbody fusion with mixed autogenous and allogeneic bone chips alone and 42 patients having posterior lumbar interbody fusion with implantation of artificial cages packed with morselized bone graft. Patients with the artificial cage had better functional improvement in the Oswestry disability index than those with bone chips alone, whereas pain score, patient satisfaction, and fusion rate were similar in the two groups. Postoperative disc height ratio, slip ratio, and segmental lordosis all decreased at final followup in the patients with bone chips alone but remained unchanged in the artificial cage group. The functional outcome correlated with radiographic fusion status. We conclude artificial cages provide better functional outcomes and radiographic improvement than bone chips alone in posterior lumbar interbody fusion for lumbar spondylolisthesis, although both techniques achieved comparable fusion rates.,[object Object]

Femoral Resurfacing in Young Patients with Hematologic Cancer and Osteonecrosis

Evguenia J. Karimova MD, Shesh N. Rai PhD, Jianrong Wu PhD, Lunetha Britton RN, Sue C. Kaste DO, Michael D. Neel MD Resurfacing hemiarthroplasties were performed to treat advanced osteonecrosis of 20 femoral heads in 14 patients (median age, 19.8 years; range, 15.1–27.4 years), treated for hematologic cancer in childhood or adolescence. Seven hips in five patients were revised to total hip arthroplasties (THA) because of pain; three of these showed radiographic loosening of the femoral head resurfacing component. The median time from resurfacing to revision was 2.4 years (range, 0.9–4.8 years). Marginal Cox-regression analysis, adjusting for correlations owing to bilateral involvement, showed positive association of revision-free survival of the prosthesis with patient’s age; time from resurfacing to the end of anticancer therapy, end of glucocorticosteroid therapy; percentage of joint space at the last radiograph; and size of the lesion has a negative association with revision-free survival. Because of this study’s exploratory nature, p values were not adjusted for the number of statistical comparisons. Among 14 patients, the probability of not requiring resurfacing prosthesis revision was 66% (SE, ±15%; 95% CI, 44%–100%) at 3 years. Osteonecrosis of the femoral head in young patients treated for hematologic cancer in childhood or adolescence poses a serious challenge to the orthopaedic surgeon. The data of this preliminary study suggest that in selected patients resurfacing hemiarthroplasty may delay the need for THA for 3–7 years.,[object Object]

Short-term Recovery of Balance Control after Total Hip Arthroplasty

Vipul Lugade MS, Virginia Klausmeier MS, Brian Jewett MD, Dennis Collis MD, Li-Shan Chou PhD Hip osteoarthritis leads to chronic pain and deteriorated joint function, which affect weightbearing and balance during gait. THA effectively restores hip function but it is not known whether THA restores balance during gait. We hypothesized patients would have greater frontal plane and smaller sagittal plane center of mass-center of pressure inclination angles preoperatively compared with control subjects, and THA would improve these inclination angles by 16 weeks postsurgery. Compared with control subjects, we observed greater frontal plane inclination angles and smaller sagittal plane angles preoperatively, indicating gait imbalance. These inclination angles were improved postoperatively, providing better balance control. Despite improvement, patients differed in frontal and sagittal plane inclination angles compared with control subjects. This suggests residual deficits in dynamic balance control in patients undergoing THA before and up to 4 months after surgery.

The Female Knee: Anatomic Variations and the Female-specific Total Knee Design

Alan C. Merchant MD, Elizabeth A. Arendt MD, Scott F. Dye MD, Michael Fredericson MD, Ronald P. Grelsamer MD, Wayne B. Leadbetter MD, William R. Post MD, Robert A. Teitge MD The concept and need for a gender-specific or female-specific total knee prosthesis have generated interest and discussion in the orthopaedic community and the general public. This concept relies on the assumption of a need for such a design and the opinion that there are major anatomic differences between male and female knees. Most of the information regarding this subject has been disseminated through print and Internet advertisements, and through direct-to-patient television and magazine promotions. These sources and a recent article in a peer-reviewed journal, which support the need for a female-specific implant design, have proposed three gender-based anatomic differences: (1) an increased Q angle, (2) less prominence of the anterior medial and anterior lateral femoral condyles, and (3) reduced medial-lateral to anterior-posterior femoral condylar aspect ratio. We examined the peer-reviewed literature to determine whether women have had worse results than men after traditional TKAs. We found women have equal or better results than men. In addition, we reviewed the evidence presented to support these three anatomic differences. We conclude the first two proposed differences do not exist, and the third is so small that it likely has no clinical effect.,[object Object]

Higher Early Mortality with Simultaneous Rather than Staged Bilateral TKAs: Results From the Swedish Knee Arthroplasty Register

Anna Stefánsdóttir MD, Lars Lidgren PhD, Otto Robertsson MD, PhD Patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) often present with symptoms that warrant bilateral TKAs. There are potential benefits to operating on both knees on the same day, but the safety of simultaneous bilateral TKAs has been questioned. To evaluate whether there were any differences in 30-day mortality between patients having simultaneous bilateral TKAs and those having staged bilateral TKAs, we analyzed data from the Swedish Knee Arthroplasty Register and the Swedish Cause of Death Register. We included 48,931 patients with OA having 60,062 primary TKAs during 1985 to 2004; 1139 had surgery on both knees on the same day (simultaneous bilateral) and 3432 had surgery on both knees on two different occasions with less than 1 year between operations (staged bilateral). The 30-day mortality after simultaneous bilateral TKAs was 7.53 (confidence interval, 2.62–21.69) times higher than after the second of staged TKA and 3.77 (confidence interval, 2.04–6.98) times higher than after a primary unilateral TKA. Assuming the total risk for a staged procedure is twice that of a unilateral procedure, the risk of mortality within 30 days is 1.94 (confidence interval, 1.05–3.59) times higher with simultaneous than staged TKA. It is safer to operate on one knee at a time.,[object Object]

Clinical Results of Bone Ingrowth TKA in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

Roberto Viganó MD, Leo A. Whiteside MD, Marcel Roy PhD Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) often are not considered for TKA with bone ingrowth fixation because of poor bone quality, but we asked whether implants with sintered metal bead surfaces could be used to durably fix implants in this group of patients. We prospectively evaluated a consecutive series of 47 patients (64 knees) between January 1, 1994, and December 30, 2001, in two separate medical centers using one TKA system. Standard primary implants were used in all knees except those with major bone defects, and in these patients we used long diaphyseal stems to stabilize the implants. Minimum followup was 61 months (mean ± standard deviation, 83 ± 6 months; range, 61–124 months). Survivorship was 98.4% at 10 years postoperatively. No components failed because of loosening. One femoral component was revised for fracture because of a massive intraosseous rheumatoid cyst. No knees had radiographic evidence of migration or widening radiolucent lines. Knee Society clinical, pain, and function scores improved after surgery and were maintained throughout followup. These data suggest bone ingrowth implants can provide durable fixation in patients with RA.,[object Object]

Deformity Correction in Children with Hereditary Hypophosphatemic Rickets

Gert Petje MD, Roland Meizer MD, Christof Radler MD, Nicolas Aigner MD, Franz Grill PhD, MD [object Object],[object Object]

Identifying Pathogens of Spondylodiscitis: Percutaneous Endoscopy or CT-guided Biopsy

Shih-Chieh Yang MD, Tsai-Sheng Fu MD, Lih-Huei Chen MD, Wen-Jer Chen MD, Yuan-Kun Tu MD Identifying offending pathogens is crucial for appropriate antibiotic administration for infectious spondylitis. Although computed tomography (CT)-guided biopsy for bacteriologic diagnosis is a standard procedure, it has a variable success rate. Some reports claim percutaneous endoscopic discectomy and drainage offer a sufficient amount of tissue for microbiologic examination and easy application. We therefore compared the diagnostic value of CT guidance with that of endoscope guidance in 52 patients with suspected infectious spondylitis. Twenty patients underwent percutaneous endoscopic discectomy and drainage by an orthopaedic surgeon and the other 32 patients underwent CT-guided biopsies by a radiologist. Patients were followed a minimum of 12 months after treatment. Culture results of the biopsy specimens were recorded. Causative bacteria were identified more frequently with percutaneous endoscopy than in CT-guided biopsy (18 of 20 [90%] versus 15 of 32 [47%]). We observed no biopsy-related complications or side effects in either group. The data suggest percutaneous endoscopic discectomy and drainage yield higher bacterial recovery rates than CT-guided spinal biopsy.,[object Object]

Local Recurrence of Disease after Unplanned Excisions of High-grade Soft Tissue Sarcomas

Benjamin K. Potter MD, Sheila C. Adams MD, J. David Pitcher MD, H. Thomas Temple MD Unplanned excisions of soft tissue sarcomas occur with alarming frequency and result in high rates of residual disease, potentially affecting patient prognosis. To determine if unplanned excisions and residual disease status at tumor bed excision increased local recurrence rates and predicted disease-specific patient survival, we retrospectively reviewed 203 consecutive patients with high-grade soft tissue sarcomas treated operatively and followed for at least 2 years (mean, 4.8 years) or until patient death. Among the 64 patients (32%) who had undergone previous unplanned excisions, six had gross residual disease and 40 of the remaining 58 (69%) had microscopic residual disease in the tumor bed. We observed subsequent local recurrence in nine of the 139 patients (6%) after planned excision compared with 22 patients (34%) after unplanned excision. More patients with unplanned excisions who underwent limb salvage procedures required flap coverage and/or skin grafting with their definitive resection (30% versus 5%). In the unplanned excision cohort, residual disease status at tumor bed excision predicted increased rates of local recurrence and decreased disease-specific survival. Unplanned excisions of high-grade soft tissue sarcomas resulted in increased rates of local recurrence but not disease-specific survival. Residual disease at reexcision predicted the likelihood of local recurrence.,[object Object]

Knee Reconstruction with Preservation of the Meniscus in Tibial Giant Cell Tumor

Jian-Min Li MD, Zhi-Ping Yang MM, Zhen-Feng Li MD, Xin Li MD, Simon R. Carter MD Giant cell tumor of bone sometimes is an aggressive benign skeletal tumor. Historically, curettage and bone grafting have a high recurrence with satisfactory function whereas wide resection has a reduced recurrence rate with compromise of limb function. Thus, maintaining joint function and achieving adequately wide resection introduces contradictory surgical goals. We developed a method for achieving both goals for giant cell tumors located in only one lateral plateau of the proximal tibia. We reconstructed 13 knees preserving the meniscus and reconstructing the tibial plateau with an iliac plate autograft after resection of a giant cell tumor involving one tibial plateau. Four patients had primary tumors and nine had recurrences after curettage. The minimum followup was 5 years (mean, 9.1 years; range, 5–12.75 years). We used the system of Enneking et al. to evaluate function. One patient had recurrence and underwent prosthesis replacement. No patient experienced collapse, instability, or pain, and knee function was restored to near normal. The mean functional score was 95%. While resecting the tumor, the normal anatomic structures of the knee can be preserved or restored in many patients. This method can be used in selected patients to reconstruct the knee after resection of tumors involving one tibial plateau.,[object Object]

Fractures of the Middle Third of the Tibia Treated with a Functional Brace

Augusto Sarmiento MD, Loren L. Latta PE, PhD It generally is accepted that fractures of the tibia located in the proximal and distal thirds tend to angulate more than midshaft fractures when treated with intramedullary nails. We therefore compared the angular deformities and final shortening of 434 closed fractures located in the middle third of the tibia treated with a functional brace with those in fractures in the proximal and distal thirds treated in the same manner. Ninety-seven percent in the middle third healed with 8° or less angulation in the mediolateral plane, which was a higher percentage than we had experienced in distal and proximal third fractures treated with this method. Nonunions occurred in four (0.9%) fractures. We found correlations between initial shortening, final shortening, initial displacement, final displacement, and time to brace with initial angulation and final angulation in the mediolateral and anteroposterior planes. The overall mean final shortening of the fractures located in the middle third was 4.3 mm. These experiences suggest satisfactory results can be obtained in most instances using a functional brace for management of closed fractures of the middle third of the tibia.,[object Object]

Trends in Surgical Management of Femoral Neck Fractures in the United States

Nitin B. Jain MD, MSPH, Elena Losina PhD, Daniel M. Ward MD, Mitchel B. Harris MD, Jeffrey N. Katz MD, MS We examined trends in utilization of open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF), THA, and hemiarthroplasty (HA) for femoral neck fractures. Closed femoral neck fractures managed with ORIF or hip arthroplasty (n = 162,257) were extracted from 1990 to 2001 Nationwide Inpatient Samples. Trends were examined during three periods (1990–1993 [Period I], 1994–1997 [Period II], and 1998–2001 [Period III]). Utilization of HA increased from 67.8% in Period I to 75.3% in Period III. In the same period, utilization of THA decreased from 11.6% to 6.6%. The trend of decreased use of THA was consistent regardless of age, hospital, or surgeon volume. In Period III, 28.7% of patients were managed at urban teaching hospitals as compared with 19.6% in Period I. Increased utilization of HA conforms with recent evidence that arthroplasty has better outcomes than ORIF. However, the decrease in THA is contrary to what was expected, and its impact on patient outcomes needs to be evaluated. The increase in the proportion of femoral fractures managed at urban teaching hospitals may reflect a change in the organization of trauma systems during the last decade.,[object Object]

Influence of Silicone Sheets on Microvascular Anastomosis

The Hoang Nguyen MD, PhD, Marcus Kloeppel MD, PhD, Christoph Hoehnke MD, PhD, Rainer Staudenmaier MD, PhD The use of silicone products combined with free flap transfer is well established in reconstructive surgery. We determined the risk of thrombosis as a result of direct contact between the silicone sheet and the point of microanastomosis. We performed microvascular surgery in 24 female Chinchilla Bastard rabbits weighing 3500 to 4000 g using two groups: Group 1 (n = 12), microanastomosis directly in contact with silicone sheets; and Group 2 (n = 12), microanastomosis protected by a 2 × 3 × 1-cm muscle cuff before being placed in contact with the silicone. We assessed flow-through of the microanastomosis by selective microangiography and histology at 1 and 3 weeks. All microanastomoses in Group 1 were occluded by postoperative thromboses, whereas all microanastomoses in Group 2 had adequate flow-through. Histologic analysis revealed thromboses in Group 1 formed from collagenous bundles of fiber securely attached to the intraluminal wall of the vessel. Three weeks after the procedure, these thromboses were canalized by varying small vessels. In Group 2, a slight luminal stenosis with evidence of infiltration of inflammatory cells at the microanastomosis line was observed histologically in all cases. Prefabricated flaps using silicone sheets and muscular cuffs placed around the anastomoses appear to reduce the risk of thrombosis and enhance neovascularization.

Fetal ACL Fibroblasts Exhibit Enhanced Cellular Properties Compared with Adults

Simone S. Stalling BSE, Steven B. Nicoll PhD Fetal tendons and skin heal regeneratively without scar formation. Cells isolated from these fetal tissues exhibit enhanced cellular migration and collagen production in comparison to cells from adult tissue. We determined whether fetal and adult fibroblasts isolated from the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), a tissue that does not heal regeneratively, exhibit differences in cell migration rates and collagen elaboration. An in vitro migration assay showed fetal ACL fibroblasts migrated twice as fast as adult ACL fibroblasts at a rate of 38.90 ± 7.69 μm per hour compared with 18.88 ± 4.18 μm per hour, respectively. Quantification of Type I collagen elaboration by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed fetal ACL fibroblasts produced four times the amount of Type I collagen compared with adult ACL fibroblasts after 7 days in culture. We observed no differences in Type III collagen with time for adult or fetal ACL fibroblasts. Our findings indicate fetal ACL fibroblasts are intrinsically different from adult ACL fibroblasts, suggesting the healing potential of the ACL may be age-dependent.

Case Report: Subacute Synovitis of the Knee After a Rose Thorn Injury: Unusual Clinical Picture

Joris F. H. Duerinckx MD Synovitis secondary to penetrating plant thorn injuries is not frequently reported. Historically, it is considered aseptic and treated with removal of the intraarticular foreign body and affected synovial lining. We report a 57-year-old healthy man who was admitted 2 weeks after being injured by a rose (Rosacea) thorn with subacute and mild synovitis with effusion of his right knee. No intraarticular foreign body was retained. Pantoea agglomerans was identified in the synovial fluid. Contrary to former teaching, effusions from joints violated by thorns should not be presumed sterile. Bacterial growth is reported infrequently, but when reported, Pantoea agglomerans is the most common organism found. We recommend removal of foreign bodies if present, arthroscopic total synovectomy, and beginning empiric antibiotic treatment with coverage against Gram-negative enteric pathogens in all cases of thorn synovitis until the results of culture specimens are known. Improved physician awareness can result in more rapid diagnosis and improved clinical outcome in affected individuals.

Case Report: Protothecal Tenosynovitis

Jin Seo Lee MD, Goo Hyun Moon MD, Nam Yong Lee MD, Kyong Ran Peck MD Protothecosis is a rare infection caused by achlorophyllic algae called Prototheca. Approximately 117 cases have been described in the literature world wide, the majority caused by the species P. wickerhamii. Cutaneous infection is the most common and cases of tenosynovitis are very rare. A local or systemic immunosuppressive factor is seen in half of the cases of protothecosis. We report a case of protothecal tenosynovitis in a middle-aged, immunocompetent woman that developed after she received sclerosing therapy of varicose veins. Administration of itraconazole with surgical débridement produced a good response. We also review the published cases of protothecal tenosynovitis.

Arthroscopically Assisted Coronoid Fracture Fixation: A Preliminary Report

Michael R. Hausman MD, Raymond A. Klug MD, Sheeraz Qureshi MD, Rachel Goldstein MD, Bradford O. Parsons MD We investigated the feasibility of arthroscopically assisted reduction and fixation of small coronoid fractures and the anterior capsule for treatment of patients with Regan and Morrey Types I and II (O’Driscoll Types I and II) coronoid fractures with instability of the ulnohumeral joint. Four consecutive patients with this fracture type underwent arthroscopically assisted treatment and were evaluated at a minimum of 1 year (mean, 76 weeks; range, 58–92 weeks). All patients achieved a functional range of motion with an average flexion/extension arc of 2.5° to 140° and full pronation and supination. No patient had recurrent elbow instability. One patient had removal of a prominent suture over the subcutaneous border of the ulna. Arthroscopically assisted management of coronoid fractures can provide excellent observation, enabling anatomic repair without extensive soft tissue dissection. Preservation of the soft tissue attachments of small coronoid fragments and repair of the capsule are possible with this technique.,[object Object]

A 16-year-old Girl With Pain and Swelling in the Medial Clavicle

Nathan F. Gilbert MD, Michael T. Deavers MD, John E. Madewell MD, Valerae O. Lewis MD

Erratum: Glenosphere Disengagement: A Potentially Serious Default in Reverse Shoulder Surgery

Bart Middernacht MD, Lieven Wilde MD, PhD, Daniel Molé MD, PhD, Luc Favard MD, PhD, Philippe Debeer MD, PhD
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