Tumor 239 articles
Chondrosarcoma is treated primarily by surgery. The prognosis of patients after local recurrence is not well defined. Both the survival of patients and the risk of further local relapse after surgical treatment of local recurrence have yet to be established.
Pathologic proximal femur fractures result in substantial morbidity for patients with skeletal metastases. Surgical treatment is widely regarded as effective; however, failure rates associated with the most commonly used operative treatments are not well defined.
The proximal femur is the most common site of surgery for bone metastases, and stabilization may be achieved through intramedullary fixation (IMN) or endoprosthetic reconstruction (EPR). Intramedullary devices are less expensive, less invasive, and may yield improved function over endoprostheses. However, it is unclear which, if either, has any advantages.
Patients with local recurrence of soft-tissue sarcomas have a poor overall survival. High-grade, soft-tissue sarcomas in deep locations may have a poorer prognosis regarding local recurrence than low-grade sarcomas or those located superficially. Although previous reports evaluated tumors at various depths, it is unclear what factors influence recurrence of deep, high-grade sarcomas.
Malignant pelvic tumors frequently pose challenges to surgeons owing to complex pelvic anatomy and local extension. External hemipelvectomy frequently allows adequate margins but is associated with substantial morbidity and reduced function. Limb salvage is an alternative approach when adequate margins can be achieved, but long-term function and survival are unclear.
Giant cell tumors (GCTs) of bone often are treated with curettage, adjuvant therapy, and cementation. Phenol is a commonly used adjuvant associated with local control rates ranging from 9% to 25%. However, it is corrosive to the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract. Ethanol is readily available and does not cause chemical burns on contact, but it is unclear whether ethanol can achieve similar local control rates as phenol for treating GCTs.
With the improved survival for patients with malignant bone tumors, there is a trend to reconstruct defects using biologic techniques. While the use of an intercalary allograft is an option, the procedures are technically demanding and it is unclear whether the complication rates and survival are similar to other approaches.
Endothelin-1 (ET-1) participates in a wide range of cancer-relevant processes including cell proliferation, inhibition of apoptosis, matrix remodeling, bone deposition, and metastases. Although ET-1 reportedly promotes osteosarcoma (OS) cell invasion, suggesting an important role of ET-1 in OS metastasis, the role of ET-1 in OS remains unclear.
Bizarre parosteal osteochondromatous proliferation (BPOP) is a benign lesion of bone, and numerous questions remain unresolved regarding its etiology, diagnosis, and treatment.