Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research ®

A Publication of The Association of Bone and Joint Surgeons ®

Shoulder 160 articles


Passive Range of Motion Characteristics in the Overhead Baseball Pitcher and Their Implications for Rehabilitation

Kevin E. Wilk PT, DPT, Leonard C. Macrina MSPT, SCS, CSCS, Christopher Arrigo MS, PT

Repetitive overhead throwing motion causes motion adaptations at the glenohumeral joint that cause injury, decrease performance, and affect throwing mechanics. It is essential to define the typical range of motion (ROM) exhibited at the glenohumeral joint in the overhead thrower.

Arthroscopically Determined Degree of Injury After Shoulder Dislocation Relates to Recurrence Rate

Vicente Gutierrez MD, Juan Edo Monckeberg MD, PhD, Miguel Pinedo MD, Fernando Radice MD

The glenohumeral joint is the most mobile articulation in the body and the most commonly dislocated diarthrodial joint with peaks in the incidence of dislocation occurring during the second and sixth decades. Age at the time of the initial dislocation is inversely related to the recurrence rate. Traumatic anterior instability is often associated with intraarticular injuries. The frequency of injuries may increase with dislocation or subluxation episodes.

An Acute Throwing Episode Decreases Shoulder Internal Rotation

W. Ben Kibler MD, Aaron Sciascia MS, ATC, NASM-PES, Stephanie Moore MS, ATC

Glenohumeral internal rotation (GIR) and total arc of motion (TAM) decrease, whereas external rotation (GER) may increase in throwing. Although decreased GIR has been documented after throwing, its time course for recovery and the effect of pitching role have not.

Reliability of Scapular Classification in Examination of Professional Baseball Players

Todd S. Ellenbecker DPT, MS, SCS, OCS, CSCS, W. Ben Kibler MD, David S. Bailie MD, Roger Caplinger ATC, George J. Davies DPT, SCS, ATC, CSCS, Bryan L. Riemann PhD, ATC

Clinically evaluating the scapulothoracic joint is challenging. To identify scapular dyskinesis, clinicians typically observe scapular motion and congruence during self-directed upper extremity movements. However, it is unclear whether this method is reliable.

Surgical Treatment of Neer Group VI Proximal Humeral Fractures: Retrospective Comparison of PHILOS® and Hemiarthroplasty

Christian Spross MD, Andreas Platz MD, Matthias Erschbamer MD, PhD, Thomas Lattmann MD, Michael Dietrich MD

Neer Group VI proximal humeral fractures often are related to persistent disability despite surgical treatment. We retrospectively compared the outcome after open reduction and internal fixation with the PHILOSplate or primary hemiarthroplasty in patients with Neer Group VI fractures focusing on complications, shoulder function, health-related quality of life (SF-36), and potential risk factors for complications.

Intraarticular Abnormalities in Overhead Athletes Are Variable

Ashvin K. Dewan MD, Juan Garzon-Muvdi MD, Steve A. Petersen MD, Xiaofeng Jia MD, PhD, Edward G. McFarland MD

The cause of shoulder pain and dysfunction in the overhead athlete can be variable. Several studies illustrate the wide variety of lesions seen at the time of arthroscopy in overhead athletes who require surgery but it is unclear whether these differ by sport.

The Natural History of Idiopathic Frozen Shoulder: A 2- to 27-year Followup Study

Heidi Vastamäki MD, Jyrki Kettunen PT, PhD, Martti Vastamäki MD, PhD

The natural history of spontaneous idiopathic frozen shoulder is controversial. Many studies claim that complete resolution is not inevitable. Based on the 40-year clinical experience of the senior author, we believed most patients with idiopathic frozen shoulder might have a higher rate of resolution than earlier thought.

Case Report: Bilateral Proximal Epiphyseal Clavicular Stress-related Lesions in a Male Gymnast

James T. Carson MPH, Teri M. McCambridge MD, John A. Carrino MD, MPH, Edward G. McFarland MD

Stress lesions of the upper extremity are relatively uncommon, and physeal stress lesions of the clavicle are rare. We present a case of bilateral physeal stress-related lesions of the proximal clavicular growth plate near the sternoclavicular joint in an adolescent male gymnast.

Accuracy of Measuring Tape and Vertebral-level Methods to Determine Shoulder Internal Rotation

Seung-Hwan Han MD, Kyung-Soo Oh MD, Kyeong-Jin Han MD, Joon Jo MD, Doo-Hyung Lee MD

Goniometers can be used to assess shoulder ROM with reasonable accuracy, but not internal rotation. Vertebral level, as determined by the hand-behind-the-back method, is used frequently but its reproducibility is questionable. We therefore devised a new measuring tape-based method for determining vertebral level.

Similar Outcomes for Nail versus Plate Fixation of Three-part Proximal Humeral Fractures

Gerhard Konrad MD, Laurent Audigé PhD, Simon Lambert MD, Ralph Hertel MD, Norbert P. Südkamp MD

There is a lack of consensus regarding optimal surgical management of displaced and unstable three-part proximal humeral fractures.