Pediatrics 103 articles
Spinal deformity, a common problem in children with myelodysplasia, is associated with alterations in pulmonary function and sitting balance. Sitting imbalance causes areas of high pressure in patients already at high risk for developing pressure ulcers due to insensate skin.
Children with spina bifida often present with functional deficits of the lower limb associated with neurosegmental lesion levels and require orthotic management. The most used orthosis for children with spina bifida is the ankle–foot orthosis (AFO). The AFO improves ambulation and reduces energy cost while walking. Despite the apparent benefits of using an AFO, limited evidence documents the influence of factors predicting the ability of an AFO to improve function and when they are indicated. These variables include AFO design, footwear, AFO–footwear combination, and data acquisition. When these variables are not adequately considered in clinical decision-making, there is a risk the AFO will be abandoned prematurely or the patient’s stability, function, and safety compromised.
Lower extremity vascular anomalies have been described for patients with clubfoot but few imaging studies have investigated effects on soft tissues such as fat and muscle. To make these assessments we need noninvasive, noncontrast agents to more safely image children.
Activity Level, Functional Health, and Quality of Life of Children with Myelomeningocele as Perceived by Parents
To provide the best health care for individuals with myelomeningocele (MM), clinicians and researchers need to understand their health and functional status as well as quality of life. The literature is mixed regarding the relationship between motor level and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) for these individuals.
Progressive kyphosis occurs in up to 20% of patients with myelomeningocele. Severely affected patients can develop recurrent skin breakdown, osteomyelitis, sitting imbalance, and poor cosmetic appearance.
Patients with myelomeningocele and rigid lumbar and thoracolumbar kyphosis face substantial functional difficulties with sitting and lying supine and are prone to skin breakdown over the gibbus and risk of infection. Kyphectomy, along with cordotomy and segmental spinal instrumentation down to the pelvis, is one alternative that can provide reliable correction of the deformity but also can maintain that correction over a period of time.
Limb Lengthening and Deformity Correction by the Ilizarov Technique in Type III Fibular Hemimelia: An Alternative to Amputation
Fibular hemimelia is partial or total aplasia of the fibula; it represents the most frequent congenital defect of the long bones. It usually is associated with other anomalies of the tibia, femur, and foot.
Patients with spina bifida frequently sustain lower extremity fractures which may be difficult to diagnose because they feel little or no pain, although the relative contributions of low bone density to pain insensitivity are unclear. Routine dual-energy xray absorptiometry (DXA) scanning is unreliable because these patients lack bony elements in the spine, and many have joint contractures and/or implanted hardware.
Early-onset scoliosis, when left untreated, leads to severe deformity. Until the last decade, treatment of progressive curves in young children often consisted of definitive spinal fusion. The recognition of thoracic insufficiency syndrome associated with definitive early fusion has led to the development of new surgical techniques developed to preserve spinal and thoracic growth in young patients with progressive scoliosis.
Structure-Respiration Function Relationships Before and After Surgical Treatment of Early-onset Scoliosis
Spine and chest wall deformities in children with early onset scoliosis (EOS) frequently impair respiratory function and postnatal growth of the lung. While a relationship between deformity and such impairment has been reported in children with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis it is not well understood in children with early-onset scoliosis (EOS).