Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research ®

A Publication of The Association of Bone and Joint Surgeons ®

Pediatrics 104 articles


Structure-Respiration Function Relationships Before and After Surgical Treatment of Early-onset Scoliosis

Gregory J. Redding MD, Oscar H. Mayer MD

Spine and chest wall deformities in children with early onset scoliosis (EOS) frequently impair respiratory function and postnatal growth of the lung. While a relationship between deformity and such impairment has been reported in children with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis it is not well understood in children with early-onset scoliosis (EOS).

Is the Vertebral Expandable Prosthetic Titanium Rib a Surgical Alternative in Patients with Spina Bifida?

John M. Flynn MD, Norman Ramirez MD, John B. Emans MD, John T. Smith MD, Mary Jane Mulcahey PhD, Randal R. Betz MD

Nonambulatory children with myelodysplasia are most likely to develop spinal deformity. As the deformity progresses, the overall health of the patient deteriorates. Traditional management of the deformity with fusion results in a short trunk, crankshaft deformity, and spine and lung growth inhibition. One alternative that potentially minimizes these problems is the vertebral expandable prosthetic titanium rib (VEPTR).

Posterior Kyphectomy for Myelomeningocele With Anterior Placement of Fixation: A Retrospective Review

Sean A. Comstock MD, P. Chris Cook MD, J. Lorne Leahey MD, Ron El-Hawary MD, John C. Hyndman MD

Kyphosis in myelomeningocele is a rare and difficult problem. Many strategies have been used with no single procedure universally agreed on. Techniques involving anterior and posterior fixation may provide better fusion.

Child Abuse: The Role of the Orthopaedic Surgeon in Nonaccidental Trauma

Ernest L. Sink MD, Joshua E. Hyman MD, Travis Matheny MD, Gaia Georgopoulos MD, Paul Kleinman MD

Child abuse presents in many different forms: physical, sexual, psychological, and neglect. The orthopaedic surgeon is involved mostly with physical abuse but should be aware of the other forms. There is limited training regarding child abuse, and the documentation is poor when a patient is at risk for abuse. There is a considerable risk to children when abuse is not recognized.

Does Threshold Nighttime Electrical Stimulation Benefit Children With Spina Bifida?: A Pilot Study

Janet L. Walker MD, Shelley W. Ryan PT, Tonya R. Coburn PA-C

Electrical stimulation is an established treatment for muscle weakness. However, traditional tectonic stimulation is poorly tolerated in children as a result of discomfort. Threshold electrical stimulation performed at night reportedly increases muscle strength in a variety of neuromuscular conditions and has been well tolerated in children.

Hip and Spine Surgery is of Questionable Value in Spina Bifida: An Evidence-based Review

James G. Wright MD, MPH, FRCSC

Although many children with spina bifida and associated scoliosis or dislocated hips undergo spine or hip surgery, the benefits are uncertain.

Adult Consequences of Spina Bifida: A Cohort Study

James W. Roach MD, Barbara F. Short RN, Hanna M. Saltzman

Patients with spina bifida potentially experience social isolation with limited employment opportunities and restriction of independent living, neurologic and intellectual impairment, and orthopaedic and urologic consequences of their condition. However, the degree of disability as these individuals age into adulthood has not been completely delineated.

Unexplained Fractures: Child Abuse or Bone Disease? A Systematic Review

Nirav K. Pandya MD, Keith Baldwin MD, MPH, MSPT, Atul F. Kamath MD, Dennis R. Wenger MD, Harish S. Hosalkar MD, MBMS (Ortho), FCPS (Ortho), DNB (Ortho)

Child abuse and neglect (CAN) is a serious problem that has major implications for the welfare of the child involved. Unexplained fractures are of particular concern to the orthopaedic surgeon, who must often consider alternative diagnoses to CAN.

The Epidemiology of Nonaccidental Trauma in Children

Kishore Mulpuri MBBS, MS, MHSc, Bronwyn L. Slobogean PA-C, Stephen J. Tredwell MD, FRCSC

Abuse of children is abhorrent in Western society and, yet, is not uncommon. Nonaccidental trauma (NAT) is the result of a complex sociopathology. Not all of the causative factors of NAT are known, many are incompletely described, not all function in each case, and many are secondary to preexisting pathology in other areas.

Child Abuse and the Legal System: The Orthopaedic Surgeon’s Role in Diagnosis

Christopher M. Sullivan MD, MPH

Orthopaedic surgeons have unique training and experience in diagnosis of fractures, both accidental and nonaccidental. That experience is valuable in identifying physical child abuse and in avoiding false accusations or convictions. Both aspects are important to the welfare of children and their families. The events that follow a report of child abuse are outside the training and experience of most orthopaedic surgeons.