Infection 113 articles
The Alpha-defensin Test for Periprosthetic Joint Infections Is Not Affected by Prior Antibiotic Administration
Previous studies have demonstrated that the administration of antibiotics to patients before performing diagnostic testing for periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) can interfere with the accuracy of test results. Although a single-institution study has suggested that alpha-defensin maintains its concentration and sensitivity even after antibiotic treatment, this has not yet been demonstrated in a larger multiinstitutional study.
Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a severe complication from the patient’s perspective and an expensive one in a value-driven healthcare model. Risk stratification can help identify those patients who may have risk factors for complications that can be mitigated in advance of elective surgery. Although numerous surgical risk calculators have been created, their accuracy in predicting outcomes, specifically PJI, has not been tested.
Cathodic Voltage-controlled Electrical Stimulation Plus Prolonged Vancomycin Reduce Bacterial Burden of a Titanium Implant-associated Infection in a Rodent Model
Cathodic voltage-controlled electrical stimulation (CVCES) of titanium implants, either alone or combined with a short course of vancomycin, has previously been shown to reduce the bone and implant bacterial burden in a rodent model of methicillin-resistant(MRSA) implant-associated infection (IAI). Clinically, the goal is to achieve complete eradication of the IAI; therefore, the rationale for the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of combining CVCES with prolonged antibiotic therapy with the goal of decreasing the colony-forming units (CFUs) to undetectable levels.
The antimicrobial concentration required to kill all the bacteria in a biofilm, known as the minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC), is typically determined in vitro by exposing the biofilm to serial concentrations of antimicrobials for 24 hours or less. Local delivery is expected to cause high local levels for longer than 24 hours. It is unknown if longer antimicrobial exposures require the same concentration to eradicate bacteria in biofilm. Questions/purposes Does MBEC change with increased antimicrobial exposure time?
Are Frozen Sections and MSIS Criteria Reliable at the Time of Reimplantation of Two-stage Revision Arthroplasty?
Frozen section histology is widely used to aid in the diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection at the second stage of revision arthroplasty, although there are limited data regarding its utility. Moreover, there is no definitive method to assess control of infection at the time of reimplantation. Because failure of a two-stage revision can have serious consequences, it is important to identify the cases that might fail and defer reimplantation if necessary. Thus, a reliable test providing information about the control of infection and risk of subsequent failure is necessary.
Is Vancomycin-only Prophylaxis for Patients With Penicillin Allergy Associated With Increased Risk of Infection After Arthroplasty?
Preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis remains one of the most important strategies for prevention of postoperative infection. In patients with penicillin allergy, alternative medications such as vancomycin are often used despite reduced antimicrobial coverage and recent literature questioning the efficacy of vancomycin monotherapy.
Does Preoperative Antimicrobial Prophylaxis Influence the Diagnostic Potential of Periprosthetic Tissues in Hip or Knee Infections?
Undiagnosed low-grade prosthetic joint infections (PJI) are recognized as an important reason for early failure of presumably aseptic revisions. Preoperatively administered antimicrobial prophylaxis reduces the incidence of PJI but it may reduce the sensitivity of microbiologic periprosthetic tissue cultures and consequently increase the incidence of undiagnosed septic prosthetic joint failures, which can lead to catastrophic serial revisions.
Infectious complications of musculoskeletal trauma are an important factor contributing to patient morbidity. Biofilm-dispersive bone grafts augmented with-amino acids (-AAs) prevent biofilm formation in vitro and in vivo, but the effects of-AAs on osteocompatibility and new bone formation have not been investigated.
Regional Intraosseous Administration of Prophylactic Antibiotics is More Effective Than Systemic Administration in a Mouse Model of TKA
In human TKA studies, intraosseous regional administration (IORA) of prophylactic antibiotics achieves local tissue antibiotic concentrations 10 times greater than systemic administration. However, it is unclear if such high concentrations provide more effective prophylaxis.
Two-stage exchange arthroplasty is a standard approach for treating total knee arthroplasty periprosthetic joint infection in the United States, but whether this should be performed with a static antibiotic spacer or an articulating one that allows range of motion before reimplantation remains controversial. It is unclear if the advantages of articulating spacers (easier surgical exposure during reimplantation and improved postoperative flexion) outweigh the disadvantages of increased cost and complexity in the setting of similar rates of infection eradication.