Hip 721 articles
Improvements in prosthetic materials, designs, and implant fixation for THA have led to bearing surface wear being the limitation of this technology. Hard-on-hard bearings promise decreased wear rates and increased survival. However, there may be different survival rates based on bearing materials, manufacturing technologies, and femoral component designs. Additionally, survival rate variability may be based on study design.
Custom Cementless THA in Patients with Skeletal Dysplasia Results in Lower Apparent Revision Rates than Other Types of Femoral Fixation
Patients with skeletal dysplasia are prone to degenerative hip disease thus requiring THA at a younger age than the general population. This is a technically demanding procedure with high complication and revision rates. Achieving good femoral fixation can be challenging because of the abnormal features of the hip.
High survival has been reported for resurfacing arthroplasty in patients with femoral deformities. Also, hardware removal may not always be necessary with resurfacing arthroplasty and may eliminate some of the difficulties performing total hip arthroplasty (THA) in patients with posttraumatic osteoarthritis.
Perivascular and Diffuse Lymphocytic Inflammation are not Specific for Failed Metal-on-metal Hip Implants
Several studies suggest that histologic findings from tissues obtained at revision arthroplasty for failed metal-on-metal (MOM) total hip implants may reflect an immune reaction to particles or ions in some patients. However, only a limited number of cases without MOM implants were reported as controls in those studies.
Metal-on-metal bearings in surface arthroplasty are associated with prolonged periods of elevated ion circulation. However, there exists some controversy regarding the effect of different surgical variables on the concentration of metal ions in whole blood of patients after hip resurfacing.
Impingement events, in addition to their role immediately proximate to frank dislocation, hold the potential to damage new-generation hard-on-hard bearings as a result of the relatively unforgiving nature of the materials and designs. Because of the higher stiffness and tighter design tolerances of metal-on-metal and ceramic implants, surgical positioning plausibly has become even more important.
Metal-on-metal articulations can release substantial amounts of particles containing cobalt and chromium into the surrounding milieu, causing concern for cellular toxicity and adverse local soft tissue reactions. The diameter of the femoral head has been one of the variables that inversely affects wear of metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty (THA). The oxidative stress of increased metal ions can be measured with serum markers. It is still controversial if larger femoral head diameters decrease wear rates in patients with metal-on-metal THA and if the increased metal ions alter the body’s antioxidant status.
Young patients with osteonecrosis (ON) treated with THA often have suboptimal function and radiographic failure with eventual revision. Resurfacing may be an option because of potentially increased functionality and decreased radiographic failure, although neither has been confirmed in the literature.
Short-term studies report comparable complication rates of one-stage bilateral versus two-stage procedures in hip resurfacing, although the long-term effects of such procedures on survivorship, quality of life, and disease-specific scores are currently unknown.