Basic Research 169 articles
Tracked Ultrasound Snapshots in Percutaneous Pedicle Screw Placement Navigation: A Feasibility Study
Computerized navigation improves the accuracy of minimally invasive pedicle screw placement during spine surgery. Such navigation, however, exposes both the patient and the staff to radiation during surgery. To avoid intraoperative exposure to radiation, tracked ultrasound snapshots—ultrasound image frames coupled with corresponding spatial positions—could be used to map preoperatively defined screw plans into the intraoperative coordinate frame. The feasibility of such an approach, however, has not yet been investigated.
Amount of Torque and Duration of Stretching Affects Correction of Knee Contracture in a Rat Model of Spinal Cord Injury
Joint contractures are a common complication of many neurologic conditions, and stretching often is advocated to prevent and treat these contractures. However, the magnitude and duration of the stretching done in practice usually are guided by subjective clinical impressions.
Débridement and bone marrow stimulation is an effective treatment option for patients with talar osteochondral defects. However, whether surgical factors affect the success of microfracture treatment of talar osteochondral defects is not well characterized.
Since 2003 many orthopaedic journals have adopted grading systems for levels of evidence (LOE). It is unclear if the quality of orthopaedic literature has changed since LOE was introduced.
Most synovial sarcomas contain a chromosomal translocation t(X;18), which results in the formation of an oncoprotein SS18-SSX critical to the viability of synovial sarcoma.
The Peripheral Neuronal Phenotype is Important in the Pathogenesis of Painful Human Tendinopathy: A Systematic Review
The pathogenesis of tendinopathy is complex and incompletely understood. Although significant advances have been made in terms of understanding the pathological changes in both the extracellular matrix and the cells involved, relatively little is known about the role of neuronal regulation in tendinopathy. The frequent mismatch between tendon pathology and pain may be explained, in part, by differences in the peripheral neuronal phenotype of patients.
Vitamin D plays an essential role in bone health and muscle function. Some studies have shown a widespread rate of vitamin D deficiency in the general population, but few have reported on the vitamin D status of orthopaedic patients.
The female predominance in thumb carpometacarpal (CMC) joint arthritis has led to speculation that reproductive hormones or hypermobility are responsible. Evidence shows that patients with pathologic laxity have a higher rate of thumb CMC arthritis. Relaxin hormone increases laxity in the pelvic ligaments through upregulation of matrix metalloproteases (MMPs). It is thus a hormone of interest in the development of thumb CMC arthritis.
The rate of release of an antibiotic from an antibiotic-loaded polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement is low. This may be increased by adding a particulate poragen (eg, xylitol) to the cement powder. However, the appropriate poragen amount is unclear.
In multiply injured patients, bilateral femur fractures invoke a substantial systemic inflammatory impact and remote organ dysfunction. However, it is unclear whether isolated bone or soft tissue injury contributes to the systemic inflammatory response and organ injury after fracture.