Basic Research 171 articles
Does Use of a Powered Ankle-foot Prosthesis Restore Whole-body Angular Momentum During Walking at Different Speeds?
Whole-body angular momentum (H) influences fall risk, is tightly regulated during walking, and is primarily controlled by muscle force generation. People with transtibial amputations using passive-elastic prostheses typically have greater H compared with nonamputees.
Uncultured Autogenous Adipose-derived Regenerative Cells Promote Bone Formation During Distraction Osteogenesis in Rats
Adipose-derived stem cells have recently shown differentiation potential in multiple mesenchymal lineages in vitro and in vivo. These cells can be easily isolated in large amounts from autologous adipose tissue and used without culturing or differentiation induction, which may make them relatively easy to use for clinical purposes; however, their use has not been tested in a distraction osteogenesis model.
Is Tip Apex Distance As Important As We Think? A Biomechanical Study Examining Optimal Lag Screw Placement
Intertrochanteric hip fractures pose a significant challenge for the orthopaedic community as optimal surgical treatment continues to be debated. Currently, varus collapse with lag screw cutout is the most common mode of failure. Multiple factors contribute to cutout. From a surgical technique perspective, a tip apex distance less than 25 mm has been suggested to decrease the risk of cutout. We hypothesized that a low-center lag screw position in the femoral head, with a tip apex distance greater than 25 mm will provide equal, if not superior, biomechanical stability compared with a center-center position with a tip apex distance less than 25 mm in an unstable intertrochanteric hip fracture stabilized with a long cephalomedullary nail.
Identification of biomarkers associated with wear and tribocorrosion in joint arthroplasty would be helpful to enhance early detection of aseptic loosening and/or osteolysis and to improve understanding of disease progression. There have been several new reports since the last systematic review (which covered research through mid-2008) justifying a new assessment.
Radiographic Evaluation of Bone Adaptation Adjacent to Percutaneous Osseointegrated Prostheses in a Sheep Model
Percutaneous osseointegrated prostheses (POPs) are being investigated as an alternative to conventional socket suspension and require a radiographic followup in translational studies to confirm that design objectives are being met.
Evaluating the Affect and Reversibility of Opioid-induced Androgen Deficiency in an Orthopaedic Animal Fracture Model
Opioid pain medications are the basis for analgesia after orthopaedic injuries and procedures. However, opioids have many adverse effects, including opioid-induced androgen deficiency.
Dual-mobility acetabular cups have been marketed with the purported advantages of reduced dislocation rates and improvements in ROM; however, the relative efficacies of these designs in terms of changing joint stability via ROM and dislocation distance have not been thoroughly evaluated.
Treatment of segmental bone loss remains a major challenge in orthopaedic surgery. Traditional techniques (eg, autograft) and newer techniques (eg, recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 [rhBMP-2]) have well-established performance limitations and safety concerns respectively. Consequently there is an unmet need for osteoinductive bone graft substitutes that may eliminate or reduce the use of rhBMP-2.
Although relatively uncommon, spontaneous healing from a meniscus injury has been observed even within the avascular area. This may be the result of the existence of mesenchymal stem cells in synovial fluid.
Although hip osteoarthritis (OA) is common, its etiology is poorly understood. Specifically, it is not known whether hip OA is associated with abnormal relationships among the anthropometric and musculoskeletal characteristics that are associated with OA in general.