Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research ®

A Publication of The Association of Bone and Joint Surgeons ®

Basic Research 173 articles

Articles

Does Vitamin E-blended UHMWPE Prevent Biofilm Formation?

Dustin L. Williams PhD, John Vinciguerra BS, Julia M. Lerdahl, Roy D. Bloebaum PhD

Biofilm-related periprosthetic infections are catastrophic to patients and clinicians. Data suggest the addition of vitamin E to UHMWPE may have the ability to reduce biofilm formation on the surface of UHMWPE; however, previous studies were performed using stagnant broth solutions that may not have simulated a physiologic environment. In addition, the observed differences in levels of bacterial attachment, though statistically significant, may not be clinically significant.

Surgical Revascularization in Structural Orthotopic Bone Allograft Increases Bone Remodeling

Wouter F. Willems MD, Thomas Kremer MD, Patricia Friedrich AAS, Allen T. Bishop MD

Osseous defects reconstructed with cryopreserved structural allografts are poorly revascularized and therefore are prone to nonunion, infection, deterioration of mechanical properties, and fracture. Whether this can be mitigated by specific interventions such as intramedullary surgical revascularization has been incompletely evaluated.

Does Use of a Powered Ankle-foot Prosthesis Restore Whole-body Angular Momentum During Walking at Different Speeds?

Susan D’Andrea PhD, Natalie Wilhelm BA, Anne K. Silverman PhD, Alena M. Grabowski PhD

Whole-body angular momentum (H) influences fall risk, is tightly regulated during walking, and is primarily controlled by muscle force generation. People with transtibial amputations using passive-elastic prostheses typically have greater H compared with nonamputees.

Uncultured Autogenous Adipose-derived Regenerative Cells Promote Bone Formation During Distraction Osteogenesis in Rats

Issei Nomura MD, Koji Watanabe MD, PhD, Hidenori Matsubara MD, PhD, Katsuhiro Hayashi MD, PhD, Naotoshi Sugimoto MD, PhD, Hiroyuki Tsuchiya MD, PhD

Adipose-derived stem cells have recently shown differentiation potential in multiple mesenchymal lineages in vitro and in vivo. These cells can be easily isolated in large amounts from autologous adipose tissue and used without culturing or differentiation induction, which may make them relatively easy to use for clinical purposes; however, their use has not been tested in a distraction osteogenesis model.

Is Tip Apex Distance As Important As We Think? A Biomechanical Study Examining Optimal Lag Screw Placement

Patrick Kane MD, Bryan Vopat MD, Wendell Heard MD, Nikhil Thakur MD, David Paller MD, Sarath Koruprolu BS, Christopher Born MD

Intertrochanteric hip fractures pose a significant challenge for the orthopaedic community as optimal surgical treatment continues to be debated. Currently, varus collapse with lag screw cutout is the most common mode of failure. Multiple factors contribute to cutout. From a surgical technique perspective, a tip apex distance less than 25 mm has been suggested to decrease the risk of cutout. We hypothesized that a low-center lag screw position in the femoral head, with a tip apex distance greater than 25 mm will provide equal, if not superior, biomechanical stability compared with a center-center position with a tip apex distance less than 25 mm in an unstable intertrochanteric hip fracture stabilized with a long cephalomedullary nail.

Are There Biological Markers for Wear or Corrosion? A Systematic Review

D. Rick Sumner PhD, Ryan Ross PhD, Ed Purdue PhD

Identification of biomarkers associated with wear and tribocorrosion in joint arthroplasty would be helpful to enhance early detection of aseptic loosening and/or osteolysis and to improve understanding of disease progression. There have been several new reports since the last systematic review (which covered research through mid-2008) justifying a new assessment.

Radiographic Evaluation of Bone Adaptation Adjacent to Percutaneous Osseointegrated Prostheses in a Sheep Model

Sujee Jeyapalina PhD, James Peter Beck MD, Kent N. Bachus PhD, Ornusa Chalayon MD, Roy D. Bloebaum PhD

Percutaneous osseointegrated prostheses (POPs) are being investigated as an alternative to conventional socket suspension and require a radiographic followup in translational studies to confirm that design objectives are being met.

Evaluating the Affect and Reversibility of Opioid-induced Androgen Deficiency in an Orthopaedic Animal Fracture Model

Jesse Chrastil MD, Christopher Sampson BS, Kevin B. Jones MD, Thomas F. Higgins MD

Opioid pain medications are the basis for analgesia after orthopaedic injuries and procedures. However, opioids have many adverse effects, including opioid-induced androgen deficiency.

Does Dual-mobility Cup Geometry Affect Posterior Horizontal Dislocation Distance?

Christopher Heffernan BME, Samik Banerjee MD, Jim Nevelos PhD, James Macintyre, Kimona Issa MD, David C. Markel MD, Michael A. Mont MD

Dual-mobility acetabular cups have been marketed with the purported advantages of reduced dislocation rates and improvements in ROM; however, the relative efficacies of these designs in terms of changing joint stability via ROM and dislocation distance have not been thoroughly evaluated.

Novel Microhydroxyapatite Particles in a Collagen Scaffold: A Bioactive Bone Void Filler?

Frank G. Lyons MB, PhD, MRCS, John P. Gleeson PhD, Sonia Partap PhD, Karen Coghlan PhD, Fergal J. O’Brien PhD

Treatment of segmental bone loss remains a major challenge in orthopaedic surgery. Traditional techniques (eg, autograft) and newer techniques (eg, recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 [rhBMP-2]) have well-established performance limitations and safety concerns respectively. Consequently there is an unmet need for osteoinductive bone graft substitutes that may eliminate or reduce the use of rhBMP-2.