Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research ®

A Publication of The Association of Bone and Joint Surgeons ®

Basic Research 173 articles


Bone Regeneration Is Promoted by Orally Administered Bovine Lactoferrin in a Rabbit Tibial Distraction Osteogenesis Model

Wenyang Li PhD, Songsong Zhu PhD, Jing Hu PhD

Lactoferrin, an iron-binding glycoprotein which belongs to the transferrin family, has been shown to promote bone growth. However, reports regarding effects of lactoferrin on bone regeneration during distraction osteogenesis are limited. Our study was designed to investigate the effect of bovine lactoferrin treatment on bone formation of the distracted callus.

Are Changes in Composition in Response to Treatment of a Mouse Model of Osteogenesis Imperfecta Sex-dependent?

Adele L. Boskey PhD, Josephine Marino MPh, Lyudmila Spevak MS, Nancy Pleshko PhD, Stephen Doty PhD, Erin M. Carter MS, Cathleen L. Raggio MD

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a genetic disease characterized by skeletal fragility and deformity. There is extensive debate regarding treatment options in adults with OI. Antiresorptive treatment reduces the number of fractures in growingmice, an animal model that reproducibly mimics the moderate-to-severe form of OI in humans. Effects of long-term treatments with antiresorptive agents, considered for treatment of older patients with OI with similar presentation (moderate-to-severe OI) are, to date, unknown.

β-Ecdysone Augments Peak Bone Mass in Mice of Both Sexes

Weiwei Dai PhD, HongLiang Zhang MD, PhD, Zhendong A. Zhong PhD, Li Jiang MD, Haiyan Chen MS, Yu-An Evan Lay MS, Alexander Kot BS, Robert O. Ritchie PhD, Nancy E. Lane MD, Wei Yao MD

One of the strongest predictors for osteoporosis is peak bone mass. Interventions to augment peak bone mass have yet to be developed. β-Ecdysone (βEcd), a natural steroid-like compound produced by arthropods to initiate metamorphosis, is believed to have androgenic effects and so may be used to augment bone mass.

Early Characterization of Blast-related Heterotopic Ossification in a Rat Model

Ammar T. Qureshi PhD, Erica K. Crump BA, Gabriel J. Pavey MD, Donald N. Hope MD, Jonathan A. Forsberg MD, Thomas A. Davis PhD

Heterotopic ossification (HO) affects the majority of combat-related lower extremity wounds involving severe fracture and amputation. Defining the timing of early osteogenic-related genes may help identify candidate prophylactic agents and guide the timing of prophylactic therapy after blast and other combat-related extremity injuries.

How Does Bone Strength Compare Across Sex, Site, and Ethnicity?

Stephen H. Schlecht PhD, Erin M. R. Bigelow MS, Karl J. Jepsen PhD

The risk of fragility fractures in the United States is approximately 2.5 times greater among black and white women compared with their male counterparts. On average, men of both ethnicities have wider bones of greater cortical mass compared with the narrower bones of lower cortical mass among women. However, it remains uncertain whether the low cortical area observed in the long bones of women is consistent with their narrower bone diameter or if their cortical area is reduced beyond that which is expected for the sex differences in body size and external bone size.

Biomechanical Outcomes of Bridge-enhanced Anterior Cruciate Ligament Repair Are Influenced by Sex in a Preclinical Model

Ata M. Kiapour PhD, Braden C. Fleming PhD, Martha M. Murray MD

Despite the well-established role of sex on the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury risk, its effects on ACL surgical outcomes remain controversial. This is particularly critical when developing novel surgical techniques to treat the injury because there are limited data existing on how these procedures will respond in each sex. One such approach is bridge-enhanced ACL repair, in which primary suture repair of the ACL is augmented with a bioactive scaffold saturated with autologous blood. It has shown comparable biomechanical outcomes to ACL reconstruction in preclinical models.

Sex Differences in Arm Muscle Fatigability With Cognitive Demand in Older Adults

Hugo M. Pereira MSc, Vincent C. Spears BSc, Bonnie Schlinder-Delap MA, Tejin Yoon PhD, April Harkins PhD, Kristy A. Nielson PhD, Marie Hoeger Bement PhD, Sandra K. Hunter PhD

Muscle fatigability can increase when a stressful, cognitively demanding task is imposed during a low-force fatiguing contraction with the arm muscles, especially in women. Whether this occurs among older adults (> 60 years) is currently unknown.

Platelet-rich Concentrates Differentially Release Growth Factors and Induce Cell Migration In Vitro

Michael O. Schär MD, Jose Diaz-Romero PhD, Sandro Kohl MD, Matthias A. Zumstein MD, Dobrila Nesic PhD

Platelet-rich concentrates are used as a source of growth factors to improve the healing process. The diverse preparation protocols and the gaps in knowledge of their biological properties complicate the interpretation of clinical results.

Women Build Long Bones With Less Cortical Mass Relative to Body Size and Bone Size Compared With Men

Karl J. Jepsen PhD, Erin M. R. Bigelow MS, Stephen H. Schlecht PhD

The twofold greater lifetime risk of fracturing a bone for white women compared with white men and black women has been attributed in part to differences in how the skeletal system accumulates bone mass during growth. On average, women build more slender long bones with less cortical area compared with men. Although slender bones are known to have a naturally lower cortical area compared with wider bones, it remains unclear whether the relatively lower cortical area of women is consistent with their increased slenderness or is reduced beyond that expected for the sex-specific differences in bone size and body size. Whether this sexual dimorphism is consistent with ethnic background and is recapitulated in the widely used mouse model also remains unclear.

Platelet-rich Plasma Modulates the Secretion of Inflammatory/Angiogenic Proteins by Inflamed Tenocytes

Isabel Andia PhD, Eva Rubio-Azpeitia MSc, Nicola Maffulli MD, MS, PhD, FRCS (Orth)

Platelet-rich plasma therapies for tendinopathy appear to provide moderate pain reduction. However, the biological mechanisms behind the observed clinical effects remain poorly characterized.