Basic Research 173 articles
To accurately quantify polyethylene wear in retrieved arthroplasty components, the original geometry of the component must be estimated accurately using a reference geometry such as a computer-aided design (CAD) model or a never-implanted insert. However, differences may exist between the CAD model and manufactured inserts resulting from manufacturing tolerances.
Osteomyelitis caused by Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) often requires surgery and prolonged systemic antibiotic treatment. Local antibiotic delivery systems of bioceramics or polymers have been developed to treat osteomyelitis. A disadvantage of biodegradable polymers is the initial burst of antibiotics into the environment; one advantage of bioceramics is its osteoconductivity. We therefore developed a vancomycin-containing poly-l-lactic acid/β-tricalcium phosphate (PLLA/β-TCP) composite to control antibiotic release and stimulate bone formation.
Chronic exertional compartment syndrome is diagnosed based on symptoms and elevated intramuscular pressure and often is treated with fasciotomy. However, what contributes to the increased intramuscular pressure remains unknown.
Allograft tissues can undergo several freeze-thaw cycles between donor tissue recovery and final use by surgeons. However, there are currently no standards indicating the number of reasonable freeze-thaw cycles for allograft bone and it is unclear how much a graft may be degraded with multiple cycles.
Functional Restoration of Critically Sized Segmental Defects With Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 and Heparin Treatment
Bone defects and fracture nonunions remain a substantial challenge for clinicians. Grafting procedures are limited by insufficient volume and donor site morbidity. As an alternative, biomaterial scaffolds functionalized through incorporation of growth factors such as bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) have been developed and appear to regenerate the structure and function of damaged or degenerated skeletal tissue.
Tendinosis-like Histologic and Molecular Changes of the Achilles Tendon to Repetitive Stress: A Pilot Study in Rats
Tendinopathy (pain and tendon degeneration) is associated with repetitive use and mechanical overload. However, the etiology of tendinopathy remains unclear. Clarification of histologic and molecular changes of tendon to repetitive stress could provide better understanding of Achilles tendon disorders related to repetitive stress.
Osteosarcomas are the most common solid malignant bone tumors, but little is known of their origin. The embryonal rest hypothesis views cancer cells as arising from committed progenitor stem cells in each tissue. Adult tissue contains primitive stem cells that retain the ability to differentiate across dermal lines, raising the possibility that the stem cell of origin of cancers may be from a more primitive stem cell than a progenitor.
Persistent inflammatory reaction to wear debris causes periprosthetic osteolysis and loosening. Some authors have advocated pharmaceutical approaches to reduce the inflammatory reaction. Erythromycin has antiinflammatory effects independent of its antimicrobial properties. Although oral erythromycin reportedly inhibits periprosthetic tissue inflammation in patients with aseptic loosening, long-term systematic erythromycin treatment is not recommended owing to its side effects. Therefore, it would be advantageous to restrict erythromycin delivery to the inflammatory periprosthetic tissue without causing side effects.
Influence of Gender and Fixation Stability on Bone Defect Healing in Middle-aged Rats: A Pilot Study
Gender and stability of fixation independently influence bone regeneration but their combined effects are unclear.
Growth differentiation factor-5 (GDF-5) is a key regulator of skeletogenesis and bone repair and induces bone formation in spinal fusions and nonunion applications by enhancing chondrocytic and osteocytic differentiation and stimulating angiogenesis. Elucidating the contribution of GDF-5 to fracture repair may support its clinical application in complex fractures.