Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research ®

A Publication of The Association of Bone and Joint Surgeons ®

Basic Research 169 articles


Functional Restoration of Critically Sized Segmental Defects With Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 and Heparin Treatment

Mela R. Johnson PhD, Joel D. Boerckel MS, Kenneth M. Dupont PhD, Robert E. Guldberg PhD

Bone defects and fracture nonunions remain a substantial challenge for clinicians. Grafting procedures are limited by insufficient volume and donor site morbidity. As an alternative, biomaterial scaffolds functionalized through incorporation of growth factors such as bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) have been developed and appear to regenerate the structure and function of damaged or degenerated skeletal tissue.

Tendinosis-like Histologic and Molecular Changes of the Achilles Tendon to Repetitive Stress: A Pilot Study in Rats

Nam Soon Cho MD, Ji Hye Hwang MD, PhD, Yong Taek Lee MD, PhD, Seoung Wan Chae MD, PhD

Tendinopathy (pain and tendon degeneration) is associated with repetitive use and mechanical overload. However, the etiology of tendinopathy remains unclear. Clarification of histologic and molecular changes of tendon to repetitive stress could provide better understanding of Achilles tendon disorders related to repetitive stress.

Osteosarcoma Cells Differentiate into Phenotypes from all Three Dermal Layers

Scott Russinoff MD, Sara Miran BS, Ashok L. Gowda MD, Paul A. Lucas PhD

Osteosarcomas are the most common solid malignant bone tumors, but little is known of their origin. The embryonal rest hypothesis views cancer cells as arising from committed progenitor stem cells in each tissue. Adult tissue contains primitive stem cells that retain the ability to differentiate across dermal lines, raising the possibility that the stem cell of origin of cancers may be from a more primitive stem cell than a progenitor.

Emerging Ideas: Can Erythromycin Reduce the Risk of Aseptic Loosening?

Weiping Ren MD, PhD, David C. Markel MD

Persistent inflammatory reaction to wear debris causes periprosthetic osteolysis and loosening. Some authors have advocated pharmaceutical approaches to reduce the inflammatory reaction. Erythromycin has antiinflammatory effects independent of its antimicrobial properties. Although oral erythromycin reportedly inhibits periprosthetic tissue inflammation in patients with aseptic loosening, long-term systematic erythromycin treatment is not recommended owing to its side effects. Therefore, it would be advantageous to restrict erythromycin delivery to the inflammatory periprosthetic tissue without causing side effects.

Influence of Gender and Fixation Stability on Bone Defect Healing in Middle-aged Rats: A Pilot Study

Manav Mehta PhD, Georg N. Duda PhD, Carsten Perka MD, Patrick Strube MD

Gender and stability of fixation independently influence bone regeneration but their combined effects are unclear.

Delayed Fracture Healing in Growth Differentiation Factor 5-deficient Mice: A Pilot Study

Cynthia M. Coleman PhD, Brooke H. Scheremeta DO, Amanda T. Boyce PhD, Robert L. Mauck PhD, Rocky S. Tuan PhD

Growth differentiation factor-5 (GDF-5) is a key regulator of skeletogenesis and bone repair and induces bone formation in spinal fusions and nonunion applications by enhancing chondrocytic and osteocytic differentiation and stimulating angiogenesis. Elucidating the contribution of GDF-5 to fracture repair may support its clinical application in complex fractures.

Evaluation of Two Sources of Calcium Sulfate for a Local Drug Delivery System: A Pilot Study

Ashley C. Parker BS, J. Keaton Smith MS, Harry S. Courtney PhD, Warren O. Haggard PhD

Local drug delivery has substantial potential to prevent infections compared with systemic delivery. Although calcium sulfate (CaSO) has been studied for local drug delivery and two types are commercially available, it is unknown whether they differentially release antibiotics.

Human Periosteum Is a Source of Cells for Orthopaedic Tissue Engineering: A Pilot Study

Michael D. Ball PhD, Ian C. Bonzani PhD, Melissa J. Bovis BSc, Andrew Williams MBBS, Molly M. Stevens PhD

Periosteal cells are important in embryogenesis, fracture healing, and cartilage repair and could provide cells for osteochondral tissue engineering.

Vascularized Bone Grafting in a Canine Carpal Avascular Necrosis Model

Wouter F. Willems MD, Gregory M. Alberton MD, Allen T. Bishop MD, Thomas Kremer MD

Limited experimental research has been performed on the treatment of avascular necrosis (AVN) by vascularized bone grafting.

Growth Factor Delivery Through Self-assembling Peptide Scaffolds

Rachel E. Miller PhD, Paul W. Kopesky PhD, Alan J. Grodzinsky ScD

The best strategy for delivering growth factors to cells for the purpose of cartilage tissue engineering remains an unmet challenge. Tethering biotinylated insulin-like growth factor-1 (bIGF-1) to the self-assembling peptide scaffold (RADA)effectively delivers bioactive bIGF-1 to cardiac tissue.