Basic Research 171 articles
Cis-2 decenoic acid (C2DA) disperses biofilm in many strains of microorganisms. However, whether C2DA inhibits bacterial growth or has potential to boost the actions of antibiotics is unknown.
Stem cell mobilization, which is defined as the forced egress of stem cells from the bone marrow to the peripheral blood (PB) using chemokine receptor agonists, is an emerging concept for enhancing tissue regeneration. However, the effect of stem cell mobilization by a single injection of the C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) antagonist AMD3100 on intramembranous bone regeneration is unclear.
Allograft integration in segmental osseous defects is unpredictable. Imaging techniques have not been applied to investigate angiogenesis and bone formation during allograft healing in a large-animal model.
Surface damage of the tibial polyethylene insert in TKA is thought to diminish with increasing conformity, based on computed lower contact stresses. Added constraint from higher conformity may, however, result in greater forces in vivo.
Cartilage defects are created on intraarticular osteochondral fragments at the entrance holes of fixation devices when these fragments are fixed to the original sites. Conventional fixation devices hinder repair of these defects and there is a latent risk of secondary osteoarthritis. We therefore developed a novel fixation device system consisting of bone screws made of cortical bone for osteochondral fragments to improve repair of these surface defects.
A Correlation Exists Between Subchondral Bone Mineral Density of the Distal Radius and Systemic Bone Mineral Density
Intraarticular distal radius fractures are common and risk articular congruity owing to disruption of the subchondral bone. Studies regarding microstructure and mechanical properties of the distal radius, however, focus only on the cortical and trabecular bones in the metaphysis and not on the subchondral bone.
In the mid to late 1990s, to sterilize UHMWPE bearings, manufacturers changed from gamma-irradiation-in-air (gamma-air) sterilization, which initiated oxidation leading to bearing fatigue, to gamma-irradiation sterilization in an inert environment (gamma-inert). The change to gamma-inert sterilization reportedly prevented shelf oxidation before implantation but not in vivo oxidation.
Gamma radiation sterilization can make cortical bone allograft more brittle, but whether it influences mechanical properties and propensity to form microscopic cracks in structurally intact cancellous bone allograft is unknown.
To accurately quantify polyethylene wear in retrieved arthroplasty components, the original geometry of the component must be estimated accurately using a reference geometry such as a computer-aided design (CAD) model or a never-implanted insert. However, differences may exist between the CAD model and manufactured inserts resulting from manufacturing tolerances.
Osteomyelitis caused by Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) often requires surgery and prolonged systemic antibiotic treatment. Local antibiotic delivery systems of bioceramics or polymers have been developed to treat osteomyelitis. A disadvantage of biodegradable polymers is the initial burst of antibiotics into the environment; one advantage of bioceramics is its osteoconductivity. We therefore developed a vancomycin-containing poly-l-lactic acid/β-tricalcium phosphate (PLLA/β-TCP) composite to control antibiotic release and stimulate bone formation.