Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research ®

A Publication of The Association of Bone and Joint Surgeons ®

Symposium: Selected Papers Presented at the 2008 Meeting of the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society 14 articles

Articles

Periacetabular Reconstruction with a New Endoprosthesis

Lawrence R. Menendez MD, FACS, Elke R. Ahlmann MD, Yuri Falkinstein MD, Daniel C. Allison MD, MBA Reconstruction of the Type II pelvic resection is challenging. Currently available reconstructive options have inherent problems including graft and implant failure, pain, poor function, and high major complication rates. The periacetabular reconstruction (PAR) endoprosthesis was designed to be secured with internal fixation and bone cement to the remaining ilium and support a reconstructed acetabulum. This construct potentially avoids the complications of graft or hardware failure, while maintaining early mobilization, comfort, limb lengths, and function. We retrospectively reviewed 25 patients who underwent Type II pelvic resection and reconstruction with the PAR endoprosthesis, analyzing function, complications, and survivorship. The minimum followup was 13 months (mean, 29.4 months; range, 13 to 108 months). We compared the PAR data with the literature for the Mark II saddle endoprosthesis. The PAR’s average MSTS score was 20.8 (67%), major complications occurred in 14 (56%), and implant survivorship was 84% at 2 years and 60% at 5 years. The rate of failure at the ilium-saddle interface was lower and implant survivorship higher than those in the published literature for the Mark II saddle. We recommend use of the PAR endoprosthesis for reconstruction of large defects following Type II pelvic resection. The modified saddle design provides greater inherent stability, allowing for faster rehabilitation and improved longevity without increased complications and is an improvement over the currently available saddle prostheses.,[object Object]

Megaprosthesis versus Condyle-sparing Intercalary Allograft: Distal Femoral Sarcoma

Melissa N. Zimel MD, Amy M. Cizik MPH, Timothy B. Rapp MD, Jason S. Weisstein MD, Ernest U. Conrad MD Although functionally appealing in preserving the native knee, the condyle-sparing intercalary allograft of the distal femur may be associated with a higher risk of tumor recurrence and endoprosthetic replacement for malignant distal femoral bone tumors. We therefore compared the risk of local tumor recurrence between patients in these two types of reconstruction groups. We retrospectively reviewed 85 patients (mean age, 22 years; range, 4–82 years), 38 (45%) of whom had a condyle-sparing allograft and 47 (55%) of whom had endoprostheses. The minimum followup for both groups was 2 years (mean, 7 years; range, 2–19 years). Local recurrences occurred in 11% (five of 47) of the patients having implants versus 18% (seven of 38) of the patients having allografts. Using time to local recurrence as an end point, the Kaplan-Meier survivorship of the implant group was similar to that of the condyle-sparing allograft group at 2, 5, and 10 years (93% versus 87% at 2 years, 87% versus 81% at 5 years, and 87% versus 81% at 10 years, respectively). The condyle-sparing allograft procedure offers the potential advantage of retaining the native knee in a young patient population while incurring no greater risk of local recurrence as those offered the endoprosthetic procedure.,[object Object]

Soft-tissue Sarcoma Metastases Identified on Abdomen and Pelvis CT Imaging

David M. King MD, Donald A. Hackbarth MD, Chris M. Kilian BA, Guillermo F. Carrera MD The current standard of care for patients with extremity soft-tissue sarcomas is to obtain imaging of the chest for staging and surveillance. Our institutional standard of care has been to obtain CT scans of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis to evaluate for metastatic disease. Cost and radiation risk led us to question the utility of the additional scans. We presumed abdomen and pelvic CT scans would not benefit this patient population. We retrospectively reviewed our sarcoma databases from 2000 to 2008. We included 124 patients with 15 types of extremity soft tissue sarcomas evaluated with CT of the C/A/P. Primary outcomes were (1) location of metastatic disease in relation to (2) sarcoma type. Twenty patients (16%) presented with or developed abdomen/pelvis metastases and 10 of the 15 types of soft tissue sarcomas had abdominal or pelvic metastases. A larger number of patients demonstrated metastatic disease in the abdomen and pelvis than anticipated. We believe routine imaging of the abdomen and pelvic with CT for both staging and surveillance of all types of soft tissue sarcoma should be considered.,[object Object]

Compressive Osseointegration of Tibial Implants in Primary Cancer Reconstruction

Richard J. O’Donnell MD Compressive osseointegration technology, which provides immediate, mechanically compliant endoprosthetic fixation, has been adapted for massive proximal tibial reconstructions in an attempt to avoid aseptic failure encountered with conventional stems. A retrospective review of 16 patients with resected tumors was undertaken to determine whether compressive osseointegration can provide durable anchorage of tibial implants. Medical records, radiographs, and clinical examinations were reviewed to assess surgical, local disease control, and prosthetic outcomes. The average age was 18 years (range, 12–42 years). Diagnoses included osteosarcoma (12), Ewing sarcoma (two), chondrosarcoma (one), and undifferentiated sarcoma (one). Minimum followup was 2 years (mean, 4.5 years; range, 2–10.3 years); no patient was lost to followup. There were no local recurrences. Four patients developed metastatic disease; one patient died of his primary tumor, and another died from a chemotherapy-related malignancy. Complications included one early deep infection that ultimately resulted in prosthetic loosening and the need for an above-knee amputation. There were two late deep infections; prosthetic retention was achieved with débridement and antibiotics. One patient developed aseptic loosening and underwent revision; the other 15 implants provided stable osseointegration at last followup. Compressive osseointegration technology can thus achieve acceptable short-term endoprosthetic fixation results and may reduce the risk of aseptic loosening reported with conventional tibial stems.,[object Object]

Biopsy of Soft Tissue Masses: Evidence-based Medicine for the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society

Bruce T. Rougraff MD, Albert Aboulafia MD, J. Sybil Biermann MD, John Healey MD The literature contains a number of controversies regarding key questions: (1) When is a biopsy indicated? (2) How should the biopsy be placed? (3) How should the biopsy be performed and which has the greatest diagnostic accuracy? (4) Who should perform the biopsy? (5) What clinical parameters present the greatest diagnostic difficulty? Using PubMed and Google Scholar we performed English-language literature searches of clinical studies reporting biopsy of soft tissue masses. Thirty-two studies met the inclusion criteria but were only able to address three of the five questions the authors had hoped to evaluate. Available evidence suggests open biopsy has the highest diagnostic accuracy over core needle biopsy, which was higher than fine needle aspiration. There was no evidence to address who is best suited to perform the biopsy (general surgeon, orthopaedic surgeon, radiologist, pathologist) in terms of accuracy of diagnosis. Frozen section at the time of biopsy may improve diagnostic accuracy. Diagnostic difficulty was associated with myxoid and round cell neoplasms, infections, and tumors located in the paraspinal region. The limited number of references addressing these issues demonstrated the need for more Level I research in the area of biopsy of soft tissue masses.,[object Object]

Compress® Periprosthetic Fractures: Interface Stability and Ease of Revision

Wakenda K. Tyler MD, John H. Healey MD, Carol D. Morris MD, Patrick J. Boland MD, Richard J. O’Donnell MD [object Object],[object Object]

Outcomes after Excision of Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis of the Knee

Vivek Sharma MD, Edward Y. Cheng MD Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) has a high but variable recurrence rate. Prior studies do not compare recurrence-free survival (RFS) for various surgical approaches or salvage surgery for relapse. We therefore determined: (1) RFS after excision; (2) RFS after salvage surgery for relapse; (3) factors associated with relapse. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 49 patients with previously untreated PVNS of the knee (12 localized, 37 diffuse) who were treated with synovectomy from 1991 to 2008; there were 22 males and 27 females, with mean age of 35.2 years (range, 10–73). Minimum followup was 1 year (mean, 6.2 years; range, 1–13). Twenty-one patients had a relapse. The RFS for index surgery was 75% and 53%; and for salvage surgery was 71% and 52% at 2 and 5 years respectively. The RFS was 95% for open versus 62% for arthroscopic synovectomy at 2 years, 71% and 41% at 5 years. The RFS was 91% for localized and 70% for diffuse PVNS at 2 years, 73% and 48% at 5 years. Diffuse disease (RR = 4.49) and arthroscopic synovectomy (RR = 3.30) were associated with relapse. Recurrence was frequent after synovectomy. Reexcision can salvage relapses as successfully as excision for primary disease; however, morbidity was associated with additional surgeries.,[object Object]

Joint Preservation after Extensive Curettage of Knee Giant Cell Tumors

Miguel A. Ayerza MD, Luis A. Aponte-Tinao MD, German L. Farfalli MD, Carlos A. Lores Restrepo MD, D. Luis Muscolo MD Curettage is the most attractive procedure for surgically treating a giant cell tumor because it preserves joint function. However, since many giant cell tumors compromise subchondral bone this technique can jeopardize the articular surface with subsequent fractures or collapse. We asked whether intralesional curettage of a giant cell tumor close to the knee that combined morselized bone and cortical structural allograft would preserve joint function. We retrospectively reviewed 22 patients treated with that approach. The minimum followup was 2 years (average, 48 months; range, 24–80 months). The distal femur was involved in 12 patients and proximal tibia in 10. Complications and failures were recorded and functional results evaluated with Musculoskeletal Tumor Society score. We determined survivorship using the Kaplan-Meier technique using removal of the implant as the endpoint. The survival was 85% and the average functional score 28 points. Three of the 22 patients had a local tumor recurrence and one had a partial subchondral collapse not requiring further treatment. Among the remaining patients, none had fracture, infection, or knee instability. The combination of fragmented and cortical allograft allows reconstructing the bone defect and ligaments created after extensive curettage of a knee giant cell tumor obtaining normal joint function and a high survival rate with minimal complications in a high percentage of the patients.,[object Object]

Early Equivalence of Uncemented Press-fit and Compress® Femoral Fixation

German L. Farfalli MD, Patrick J. Boland MD, Carol D. Morris MD, Edward A. Athanasian MD, John H. Healey MD Bone ingrowth promises more durable biologic fixation of megaprostheses. The relative performance of different types of fixation is unknown. We compared the fixation of two forms of biologically fixed femoral components: an intramedullary uncemented press-fit stem (UCS; Group 1, 50 patients) and a Compress® uncemented fixation (CPS; Group 2, 41 patients). In Group 1, the overall Kaplan-Meier prosthetic survival rates were 85% at 5 and 71% at 10 years. Most failures were long-term developments. Aseptic loosening was the primary cause of failure. Stem diameters less than 13.5 mm and a diaphyseal/stem coefficient greater than 2.5 mm were associated with decreased prosthetic survival. In Group 2, the overall rate of CPS survival was 88% at 5 years. Failure of femoral fixation or fracture during the first year was the main reason for revision. Five-year survival rates were similar between the groups and we observed no difference in the functional success of the implants. We found no failures after 1-year followup in Group 2 (CPS). Any difference in prosthetic survival can only be proven by longer-term study or a randomized trial.,[object Object]

The Linear Cutting Stapler May Reduce Surgical Time and Blood Loss with Muscle Transection: A Pilot Study

Daniel C. Allison MD, MBA, Elke R. Ahlmann MD, Anny H. Xiang PhD, Lawrence R. Menendez MD, FACS Because of skeletal muscle’s density and vascularity, its transection with standard electrocautery can be tedious. In a pilot study we asked whether a linear cutting stapling device decreased surgical time, blood loss, transfusion rates, and complications in patients undergoing above-knee amputation when compared to traditional electrocautery. We retrospectively reviewed 11 patients with above-knee amputation cases using a linear cutting stapling device over a 10-year period and compared those to 13 patients in whom we used electrocautery. The patients treated with the linear cutting stapling device had an average of 97 minutes of surgical time, 302 cc blood loss, and 1.55 units transfusion, compared to an average 119 minutes, 510 cc, and 2.15 units, respectively, with the electrocautery cases. Despite the trends, these parameters, as well as major complications, were similar in these two small groups. In skeletal muscle transection, we believe the linear cutting stapler is a reasonable and potentially cost-effective technical alternative to electrocautery, possibly resulting in less blood loss and shorter surgical time with similar rates of complications.,[object Object]

The Friedman-Eilber Resection Arthroplasty of the Pelvis

Adam J. Schwartz MD, Piya Kiatisevi MD, Fritz C. Eilber MD, Frederick R. Eilber MD, Jeffrey J. Eckardt MD It has been argued that internal hemipelvectomy without reconstruction of the pelvic ring leads to poor ambulation and inferior patient acceptance. To determine the accuracy of this contention, we posed the following questions: First, how effectively does a typical patient ambulate following this procedure? Second, what is the typical functional capacity of a patient following internal hemipelvectomy? In the spring of 2006, we obtained video documentation of eight patients who had undergone resection arthroplasty of the hemipelvis seen in our clinic during routine clinical followup. The minimum followup in 2006 was 1.1 years (mean, 8.2 years; range, 1.1–22.7 years); at the time of last followup in 2008 the minimum followup was 2.9 years (mean, 9.8 years; range, 2.9–24.5 years). At last followup seven of the eight patients were without pain, and were able to walk without supports. The remaining patient used narcotic medication and a cane or crutch only occasionally. The mean MSTS score at the time of most recent followup was 73.3% of normal (range 53.3–80.0%; mean raw score was 22.0; range 16–24). All eight patients ultimately returned to gainful employment. These observations demonstrate independent painless ambulation and acceptable function is possible following resection arthroplasty of the hemipelvis.,[object Object]