Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research ®

A Publication of The Association of Bone and Joint Surgeons ®

Symposium: New Approaches to Shoulder Surgery 15 articles

Articles

Risk Factors for Readmission and Revision Surgery Following Rotator Cuff Repair

Seth L. Sherman MD, Stephen Lyman PhD, Panagiotis Koulouvaris MD, Andrew Willis MD, Robert G. Marx MD, MSc, FRCSC Risk factors for revision surgery and hospitalization following rotator cuff repair (RCR) have not been clearly identified. We hypothesized patient factors and surgeon and hospital volume independently contribute to the risk of readmission within 90 days and revision RCR within one year. Using the SPARCS database, we included patients undergoing primary RCR in New York State between 1997 and 2002. These patients were tracked for readmission within 90 days and revision RCR within 1 year. A generalized estimating equation was developed to determine whether patient factors, surgeon volume, or hospital volume were independent risk factors for the above outcome measures. The total annual number of RCR increased from 6,656 in 1997 to 10,128 in 2002. Ambulatory cases increased from 57% to 82% during this time period. Independent risk factors for readmission within 90 days included increasing age and increased number of comorbidities. Independent risk factors for revision RCR included increasing age, increased comorbidity, and lower surgeon volume. Hospital volume had a minimal effect on either outcome measure. The shift toward out-patient surgery mirrors the shift from open to arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. The finding that surgeon volume is a predictor of revision RCR reflects the findings in other orthopaedic procedures.,[object Object]

Reverse Shoulder Arthroplasty Combined with a Modified Latissimus Dorsi and Teres Major Tendon Transfer for Shoulder Pseudoparalysis Associated with Dropping Arm

Pascal Boileau MD, Christopher Chuinard MD, MPH, Yannick Roussanne MD, Ryan T. Bicknell MD, MSc, FRCS(C), Nathalie Rochet MD, PhD, Christophe Trojani MD, PhD Although a reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) can restore active elevation in the cuff deficient shoulder, it cannot restore active external rotation when both the infraspinatus and teres minor muscles are absent or atrophied. We hypothesized that a latissimus dorsi and teres major (LD/TM) transfer with a concomitant RSA would restore shoulder function and activities of daily living (ADLs). We prospectively followed 11 consecutive patients (mean age, 70 years) with a combined loss of active elevation and external rotation (shoulder pseudoparalysis and dropping arm) who underwent this procedure. All had severe cuff tear arthropathy (Hamada Stage 3, 4, or 5) and severe atrophy or fatty infiltration of infraspinatus and teres minor on preoperative MRI or CT-scan. The combined procedure was performed through a single deltopectoral approach in the same session. Postoperatively, mean active elevation increased from 70° to 148° (+78°) and external rotation from −18° to 18° (+36°). The Constant score, subjective assessment and ADLs improved. The combination of a RSA and LD/TM transfer restored both active elevation and external rotation in this selected subgroup of patients with a cuff deficient shoulder and absent or atrophied infraspinatus and teres minor.,[object Object]

Biological Augmentation of Rotator Cuff Tendon Repair

David Kovacevic BS, Scott A. Rodeo MD A histologically normal insertion site does not regenerate following rotator cuff tendon-to-bone repair, which is likely due to abnormal or insufficient gene expression and/or cell differentiation at the repair site. Techniques to manipulate the biologic events following tendon repair may improve healing. We used a sheep infraspinatus repair model to evaluate the effect of osteoinductive growth factors and BMP-12 on tendon-to-bone healing. Magnetic resonance imaging and histology showed increased formation of new bone and fibrocartilage at the healing tendon attachment site in the treated animals, and biomechanical testing showed improved load-to-failure. Other techniques with potential to augment repair site biology include use of platelets isolated from autologous blood to deliver growth factors to a tendon repair site. Modalities that improve local vascularity, such as pulsed ultrasound, have the potential to augment rotator cuff healing. Important information about the biology of tendon healing can also be gained from studies of substances that inhibit healing, such as nicotine and antiinflammatory medications. Future approaches may include the use of stem cells and transcription factors to induce formation of the native tendon-bone insertion site after rotator cuff repair surgery.

Glenoid Reconstruction in Revision Shoulder Arthroplasty

Bassem Elhassan MD, Mehmet Ozbaydar MD, Lawrence D. Higgins MD, Jon J. P. Warner MD Failed shoulder arthroplasty associated with glenoid bony deficiency is a difficult problem. Revision surgery is complex with unpredictable outcome. We asked whether revision shoulder arthroplasty with glenoid bone grafting could lead to good outcome. We retrospectively reviewed 21 patients who underwent glenoid bone grafting using corticocancellous bone grafting or impaction grafting using cancellous bone graft. Three patients underwent revision TSA, five patients hemiarthroplasty, 10 patients hemiarthroplasty with biologic resurfacing of the glenoid, and three patients revision to reverse TSA. The patients had minimum 25 months followup (average, 45 months; range, 25–92 months). All patients had improvement in their range of motion and the Constant-Murley score. Most improvement occurred in patients with glenoid reimplantation. Patients who underwent revision reverse TSA had improvement in shoulder flexion but decrease in external rotation motion. We conclude revision shoulder arthroplasty with glenoid bone grafting can produce good short-term outcome and glenoid component reinsertion should be attempted whenever possible.,[object Object]

Débridement of Small Partial-thickness Rotator Cuff Tears in Elite Overhead Throwers

Scott B. Reynolds MD, Jeffrey R. Dugas MD, E. Lyle Cain MD, Christopher S. McMichael MPH, James R. Andrews MD Elite overhead throwing athletes with rotator cuff tears represent a unique group of patients with an ultimate goal of returning to their previous level of competition. We hypothesized débridement of small partial-thickness rotator cuff tears would return the majority of elite overhead throwing athletes to their previous level of competition. Preoperative and intraoperative findings on 82 professional pitchers who had undergone débridement of partial-thickness rotator cuff tears were evaluated using our database. We obtained return to play data on 67 of the 82 players (82%); 51 (76%) were able to return to competitive pitching at the professional level and 37 (55%) were able to return to the same or higher level of competition. Of the 67 patients, 34 pitchers returned a questionnaire with a minimum followup of 18 months (mean 38 months; range 18 to 59 months). SF-12 scores were above average with a mean PSF-12 and MSF-12 of 55.04 and 56.49 respectively. An Athletic Shoulder Outcome Rating Scale score of greater than 60 was found in 76.5% of pitchers. Débridement of small partial-thickness rotator cuff tears allowed a majority of elite overhead throwing athletes to return to competitive pitching, however, returning to their previous level of competition remains a challenge for many of these players.,[object Object]

Augmented Glenoid Component for Bone Deficiency in Shoulder Arthroplasty

Robert S. Rice MD, John W. Sperling MD, MBA, Joseph Miletti MD, Cathy Schleck BS, Robert H. Cofield MD Asymmetric posterior glenoid wear caused by degenerative glenohumeral arthritis can be addressed by several techniques during total shoulder arthroplasty. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the midterm outcome of a posterior augmented glenoid component to determine the clinical and radiographic outcome, including complications and the need for revision surgery. Between 1995 and 1999, 13 patients (14 shoulders) underwent a shoulder arthroplasty with an augmented glenoid component to treat posterior glenoid bone deficiency. All 14 shoulders had advanced osteoarthritis. The minimum followup for these 13 patients was 2 years (mean, 5 years; range, 2–8 years). The mean age of these patients was 66 years at the time of surgery (range, 52–78 years). The mean active elevation was 160° (range, 120°–180°) and external rotation was 56° (range, 30°–90°). According to a modified Neer result rating system, 36% of patients had an excellent result, 50% a satisfactory result, and 14% an unsatisfactory result. Our results suggest patients undergoing total shoulder arthroplasty with an asymmetric glenoid component for osteoarthritis achieve satisfactory mid-term pain relief and improvement in function; however, instability is not always corrected. The advantage of this component seems marginal, and its use has been discontinued.,[object Object]

Contribution of the Reverse Endoprosthesis to Glenohumeral Kinematics

Jeroen H. M. Bergmann MSc, M. Leeuw MSc, Thomas W. J. Janssen PhD, DirkJan H. E. J. Veeger PhD, W. J. Willems PhD, MD After placement of a reverse shoulder endoprosthesis, range of motion is usually still compromised. To what extent this occurs from limitation in motion of the reverse endoprosthesis is, however, unclear. We measured the motion pattern of 16 patients (18 shoulders) during three active and passive range of motion tasks using a six degree-of-freedom electromagnetic tracking device. Despite rotator cuff deficiencies, glenohumeral elevation contributed roughly two-thirds of the total thoracohumeral elevation, which is comparable to healthy subjects. However, patients could not actively use the full range of motion provided by the prosthesis. Although we found considerable interindividual differences in shoulder kinematics, the limitation in glenohumeral range of motion appears related to a lack of generated muscle force and not the design of the prosthesis.,[object Object]

CT Scan Method Accurately Assesses Humeral Head Retroversion

P. Boileau MD, R. T. Bicknell MD, MSc, FRCSC, N. Mazzoleni MD, G. Walch MD, J. P. Urien MD Humeral head retroversion is not well described with the literature controversial regarding accuracy of measurement methods and ranges of normal values. We therefore determined normal humeral head retroversion and assessed the measurement methods. We measured retroversion in 65 cadaveric humeri, including 52 paired specimens, using four methods: radiographic, computed tomography (CT) scan, computer-assisted, and direct methods. We also assessed the distance between the humeral head central axis and the bicipital groove. CT scan methods accurately measure humeral head retroversion, while radiographic methods do not. The retroversion with respect to the transepicondylar axis was 17.9° and 21.5° with respect to the trochlear tangent axis. The difference between the right and left humeri was 8.9°. The distance between the central axis of the humeral head and the bicipital groove was 7.0 mm and was consistent between right and left humeri. Humeral head retroversion may be most accurately obtained using the patient’s own anatomic landmarks or, if not, identifiable retroversion as measured by those landmarks on contralateral side or the bicipital groove.

Outcome of Arthroscopic Débridement is Worse for Patients With Glenohumeral Arthritis of Both Sides of the Joint

Brian J. Kerr MD, Eric C. McCarty MD Glenohumeral arthritis in the young patient presents a difficult problem with potentially devastating sequelae. Reports in the literature suggest a role for arthroscopic treatment in patients with symptomatic degenerative joint disease of the shoulder. However, no published study directly compares patients with unipolar versus bipolar cartilage lesions. We retrospectively reviewed 19 patients (20 shoulders) younger than 55 years with Outerbridge Grade 2–4 articular cartilage changes who underwent arthroscopic glenohumeral débridements. We obtained WOOS, SF-12, SANE and the American Shoulder and Elbow Society scores at last followup. The minimum follow up time was 12 months (average, 20 months; range, 12–33 months). Three patients progressed to shoulder arthroplasty. All but three patients reported their shoulder function at 60% or better based on the SANE score. The grade of the lesion did not influence outcome scores, but patients with unipolar lesions had higher outcome scores than patients with bipolar lesions. We believe arthroscopic glenohumeral débridement in young patients with shoulder arthritis can be an effective tool in managing symptoms and delaying the need for invasive resurfacing or prosthetic replacement.,[object Object]

Projection of the Glenoid Center Point Within the Glenoid Vault

Damian M. Rispoli MD, John W. Sperling MD, MBA, George S. Athwal MD, FRCSC, Doris E. Wenger MD, Robert H. Cofield MD Correct identification of the center point of the glenoid surface guides glenoid component placement. It is unknown whether the center point on the glenoid surface corresponds to the center of the glenoid vault at the medial extent of the glenoid prosthesis. We reviewed 20 consecutive computed tomography scans obtained preoperatively in patients with primary osteoarthritis. A glenoid center point was chosen on the glenoid surface and then projected back into the glenoid vault along the scapular axis and perpendicular to glenoid inclination. The difference from the projection of the glenoid surface center point to the center point at a 1.5-cm depth into the glenoid vault was then measured. The mean deviation of the glenoid center point at a depth of 1.5 cm from the center point at the glenoid articular surface was 1.7 mm anterior and 3.9 mm inferior. The most common deviation of the center point of the glenoid vault at the projected medial limit of the glenoid prosthesis was slightly anterior and inferior to the center point on the glenoid surface. Identifying the center of the glenoid surface coupled with alignment of the glenoid prosthesis in neutral version and anatomic inclination provides a reliable means to guide placement of glenoid components.

Surgical Treatment of Winged Scapula

Gregory J. Galano MD, Louis U. Bigliani MD, Christopher S. Ahmad MD, William N. Levine MD Injuries to the long thoracic and spinal accessory nerves present challenges in diagnosis and treatment. Palsies of the serratus anterior and trapezius muscles lead to destabilization of the scapula with medial and lateral scapular winging, respectively. Although nonoperative treatment is successful in some patients, failures have led to the evolution of surgical techniques involving various combinations of fascial graft and/or transfer of adjacent muscles. Our preferred method of reconstruction for serratus anterior palsy is a two-incision, split pectoralis major transfer without fascial graft. For trapezius palsy, we prefer a modified version of the Eden-Lange procedure. At a minimum followup of 16 months (mean, 47 months), six patients who underwent the Eden-Lange procedure showed improvement in mean American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Shoulder scores (33.3–64.6), forward elevation (141.7–151.0), and visual analog scale (7.0–2.3). At a minimum followup of 16 months (mean, 44 months), 10 patients (11 shoulders) who underwent split pectoralis transfer also improved American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Shoulder scores (53.3–63.8), forward elevation (158.2–164.5), and visual analog scale (5.0–2.9). We encountered two complications, both superficial wound infections. These tendon transfers were effective for treating scapular winging in patients who did not respond to nonoperative treatment.,[object Object]

A Modified Technique of Arthroscopically Assisted AC Joint Reconstruction and Preliminary Results

Daniel P. Tomlinson MD, David W. Altchek MD, Jeffrey Davila MD, Frank A. Cordasco MD Surgical treatment of high-grade acromioclavicular (AC) joint separations has become analogous to ligament reconstructions elsewhere in the body with the goal being restoration of the native anatomy. Circumferential access to the base of the coracoid is essential to reconstruct the coracoclavicular ligament complex. Using some of the traditional open approaches, this access requires detaching the deltoid insertion and performing extensive soft tissue dissection. Also, poor visualization risks injury to nearby neurovascular structures. An arthroscopically assisted reconstruction offers the advantage of less soft tissue dissection and superior visualization to the base of the coracoid. We have developed a unique arthroscopically assisted technique that uses a subacromial approach to pass suture material and a tendon graft around the coracoid to reconstruct the coracoclavicular ligament complex. We describe our technique and preliminary results in 10 patients who have undergone coracoclavicular ligament reconstruction for high-grade AC separation. All patients improved subjectively with regard to pain and function at a minimum followup of 3 months (mean, 5 months; range, 3–18 months). This arthroscopically assisted technique has the potential to allow for safe and at least in the short term reliable restoration of the coracoclavicular ligament complex and provides an alternative technique to treat AC joint separations.,[object Object]

Complications After Open Distal Clavicle Excision

Efstathis Chronopoulos MD, Harpreet S. Gill MD, Michael T. Freehill MD, Steve A. Petersen MD, Edward G. McFarland MD Isolated distal clavicle excision performed as an open procedure has been considered safe and, in the literature, has been considered the standard for comparison with arthroscopic distal clavicle excisions. However, we noticed isolated open distal clavicle excision was associated with a number of complications. We therefore raised two questions about the complication rate in a cohort of our patients who had undergone this procedure: (1) What was the complication rate and how did it compare to that in the existing literature on this subject? and (2) Were the complications in our cohort similar to those previously reported? We studied 42 patients who underwent an isolated distal clavicle excision between 1992 and 2003. There were 27 complications (64%), which was substantially higher than rates previously reported. Complications in our cohort not previously reported included continued acromioclavicular joint tenderness and scar hypertrophy. Our study suggests complications after open distal clavicle excisions may be more frequent than and may differ from previously reported rates and types.,[object Object]

Development of a Regional Model of Care for Ambulatory Total Shoulder Arthroplasty

S. H. Gallay MD, J. J. A. Lobo MD, J. Baker RN, K. Smith MD, K. Patel MD Total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) has traditionally been performed as inpatient surgery to provide adequate postoperative analgesia via intermittent opioid administration. We developed a regional model for ambulatory TSA using continuous brachial plexus nerve block (CBPNB). We asked whether this regional model would allow us to select patients to undergo outpatient TSA using CBPNB while providing similar outcomes to those patients who were managed with CBPNB and a one-night or longer inpatient hospital stay. Of 16 selected patients, eight underwent outpatient TSA/CBPNB while the other eight had an overnight hospital stay. Outcome measures included readmission, duration of CBPNB use, pain scores, adjunctive analgesia use, range of motion, and patient satisfaction. There were no readmissions. Patients used CBPNB for an average of 6 days. The average postoperative pain score was 1/10. One patient required oral analgesics while using CBPNB. All patients were very satisfied (Likert scale) and would have the surgery again. Although these data are preliminary, the development of a regional outpatient model for TSA using CBPNB permitted integration of community care and patient satisfaction and decreased length of hospital stay.,[object Object]