Symposium: Clinically Relevant Strategies for Treating Cartilage and Meniscal Pathology 14 articles
Stereologic Analysis of Tibial-Plateau Cartilage and Femoral Cancellous Bone in Guinea Pigs With Spontaneous Osteoarthritis
Two strains of guinea pig develop spontaneous osteoarthritis of the knee. Although the disease evolves at different rates in the two strains, it is not known whether these differences are reflected in the structure of the cartilage and cancellous bone.
The best strategy for delivering growth factors to cells for the purpose of cartilage tissue engineering remains an unmet challenge. Tethering biotinylated insulin-like growth factor-1 (bIGF-1) to the self-assembling peptide scaffold (RADA)effectively delivers bioactive bIGF-1 to cardiac tissue.
Cartilage Matrix Formation by Bovine Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Three-dimensional Culture Is Age-dependent
Cartilage degeneration is common in the aged, and aged chondrocytes are inferior to juvenile chondrocytes in producing cartilage-specific extracellular matrix. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are an alternative cell type that can differentiate toward the chondrocyte phenotype. Aging may influence MSC chondrogenesis but remains less well studied, particularly in the bovine system.
Full-thickness chondral defects and early osteoarthritis continue to present major challenges for the patient and the orthopaedic surgeon as a result of the limited healing potential of articular cartilage. The use of bioactive growth factors is under consideration as a potential therapy to enhance healing of chondral injuries and modify the arthritic disease process.
We developed a tissue-engineered biphasic cartilage bone substitute construct which has been shown to integrate with host cartilage and differs from autologous osteochondral transfer in which integration with host cartilage does not occur.
Frictional Properties of the Meniscus Improve After Scaffold-augmented Repair of Partial Meniscectomy: A Pilot Study
To prevent further degeneration, it is desirable to fill a meniscal defect with a supportive scaffold that mimics the mechanics of native tissue. Degradable porous scaffolds have been used, but it is unclear whether the tissue that fills the site of implantation is mechanically adequate, particularly with respect to frictional performance.
Because the injured joint has an actively inflammatory environment, the survival and repair potential of cartilage grafts may be influenced by inflammatory processes. Understanding the interactions of those processes with the graft may lead to concepts for pharmacologic or surgical solutions allowing improved cartilage repair.
Avascular meniscal injuries are largely incapable of healing; the most common treatment remains partial meniscectomy despite the risk of subsequent osteoarthritis. Meniscal responses to injury are partially mediated through synovial activity and strategies have been investigated to encourage healing through stimulating or transplanting adjacent synovial lining. However, with their potential for chondrogenesis, synovial fibroblast-like stem cells hold promise for meniscal cartilage tissue engineering.
Photopolymerizable poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels offer a platform to deliver cells in vivo and support three-dimensional cell culture but should be designed to degrade in sync with neotissue development and endure the physiologic environment.
Mechanical stimuli are of crucial importance for the development and maintenance of articular cartilage. For conditioning of cartilaginous tissues, various bioreactor systems have been developed that have mainly aimed to produce cartilaginous grafts for tissue engineering applications. Emphasis has been on in vitro preconditioning, whereas the same devices could be used to attempt to predict the response of the cells in vivo or as a prescreening method before animal studies. As a result of the complexity of the load and motion patterns within an articulating joint, no bioreactor can completely recreate the in vivo situation.
Bioactive Glass 13-93 as a Subchondral Substrate for Tissue-engineered Osteochondral Constructs: A Pilot Study
Replacement of diseased areas of the joint with tissue-engineered osteochondral grafts has shown potential in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Bioactive glasses are candidates for the osseous analog of these grafts.