Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research ®

A Publication of The Association of Bone and Joint Surgeons ®

Symposium: Allograft Research and Transplantation 9 articles

Articles

GNAS1 and PHD2 Short-interfering RNA Support Bone Regeneration in Vitro and in an in Vivo Sheep Model

Carmen N. RĂ­os BS, Roman J. Skoracki MD, Anshu B. Mathur PhD

Our ability to guide cells in biomaterials for in vivo bone repair is limited and requires novel strategies. Short-interfering RNA (siRNA) allows the regulation of multiple cellular pathways. Core binding factor alpha 1 (Cbfa1) and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) pathways can be modulated to direct bone formation via siRNA against guanine nucleotide-binding protein alpha-stimulating activity polypeptide 1 (siGNAS1) and prolyl hydroxylase domain-containing protein 2 (siPHD2), respectively.

Immune and Inflammatory Pathways are Involved in Inherent Bone Marrow Ossification

Umut Atakan Gurkan PhD, Ryan Golden BS, Vipuil Kishore PhD, Catherine P. Riley MS, Jiri Adamec PhD, Ozan Akkus PhD

Bone marrow plays a key role in bone formation and healing. Although a subset of marrow explants ossifies in vitro without excipient osteoinductive factors, some explants do not undergo ossification. The disparity of outcome suggests a significant heterogeneity in marrow tissue in terms of its capacity to undergo osteogenesis.

Surgical Revascularization Induces Angiogenesis in Orthotopic Bone Allograft

Wouter F. Willems MD, Thomas Kremer MD, Patricia Friedrich AAS, Allen T. Bishop MD

Remodeling of structural bone allografts relies on adequate revascularization, which can theoretically be induced by surgical revascularization. We developed a new orthotopic animal model to determine the technical feasibility of axial arteriovenous bundle implantation and resultant angiogenesis.

Surface Treatment of Flexor Tendon Autograft and Allograft Decreases Adhesion Without an Effect of Graft Cellularity: A Pilot Study

Furkan E. Karabekmez MD, Chunfeng Zhao MD

Flexor tendon grafting is often required to reconstruct a failed tendon repair. Previous reports have demonstrated flexor grafts coated with lubricants such as carbodiimide derivatized hyaluronic acid (cd-HA) decrease adhesion formation and improve digit function. However, whether this surface modification would affect graft adhesion and cellularity is unknown.

Adult Stem Cell Mobilization Enhances Intramembranous Bone Regeneration: A Pilot Study

Margaret A. McNulty PhD, Amarjit S. Virdi PhD, Kent W. Christopherson PhD, Kotaro Sena DDS, PhD, Robin R. Frank BS, Dale R. Sumner PhD

Stem cell mobilization, which is defined as the forced egress of stem cells from the bone marrow to the peripheral blood (PB) using chemokine receptor agonists, is an emerging concept for enhancing tissue regeneration. However, the effect of stem cell mobilization by a single injection of the C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) antagonist AMD3100 on intramembranous bone regeneration is unclear.

Quantifying Massive Allograft Healing of the Canine Femur In Vivo and Ex Vivo: A Pilot Study

Brandon G. Santoni PhD, Nicole Ehrhart VMD, MS, Ricardo Betancourt-Benitez PhD, Christopher A. Beck PhD, Edward M. Schwarz PhD

Allograft integration in segmental osseous defects is unpredictable. Imaging techniques have not been applied to investigate angiogenesis and bone formation during allograft healing in a large-animal model.

Does Augmentation with a Reinforced Fascia Patch Improve Rotator Cuff Repair Outcomes?

Andrew R. Baker MS, Jesse A. McCarron MD, Carmela D. Tan MD, Joseph P. Iannotti MD PhD, Kathleen A. Derwin PhD

Scaffold devices are used to augment rotator cuff repairs in humans. While the strength of a novel poly-L-lactic acid-reinforced (human) fascia patch has been documented, it is unclear whether such patches will enhance the strength or likelihood of healing of rotator cuff repairs.

Irradiation Does Not Modify Mechanical Properties of Cancellous Bone Under Compression

Christopher J. Hernandez PhD, Daniel S. Ramsey MS, Stephanie J. Dux MS, Eileen H. Chu MD, Clare M. Rimnac PhD

Gamma radiation sterilization can make cortical bone allograft more brittle, but whether it influences mechanical properties and propensity to form microscopic cracks in structurally intact cancellous bone allograft is unknown.