Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research ®

A Publication of The Association of Bone and Joint Surgeons ®

Validation of the Chinese (Mandarin) Version of the Oxford Knee Score in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis

Kai Lin BS, Liangxiao Bao BS, Jian Wang MD, Kimie Fujita PhD, Kiyoko Makimoto PhD, Xiaoyan Liao PhD

Abstract

Background

With the increasing number of patients with knee osteoarthritis undergoing TKAs in China, there is a clear need for a valid, short, joint-specific patient-reported outcome measure such as the Oxford Knee Score (OKS).

Questions/purposes

To test the translated and cross-culturally adapted Chinese (Mandarin) version of the Oxford Knee Score (OKS-CV) and its (1) reliability, (2) construct validity, (3) dimensionality, and (4) responsiveness.

Methods

Three native Chinese bilingual translators (a professional English translator, an experienced orthopaedic surgeon, an advanced-practice nursing specialist) translated the English-language OKS into Mandarin Chinese. A consensus panel created a synthesis of those efforts, which then was back-translated by two bilingual nonmedical, professional English-language translators. The OKS-CV was developed according to the guidelines of copyright holders. Between March 2013 and March 2015, 253 patients underwent TKAs. Among them, 114 Mandarin-speaking patients with knee osteoarthritis underwent primary unilateral TKA (age, 67 ± 7 years; range, 55–84 years; female, 80%; preoperatively 54% had moderate to severe knee osteoarthritis), completed the preoperative questionnaires, and were followed up, with a mean postoperative followup of 2.7 years (SD, 0.5 years). Eligibility criteria were (1) patients with knee osteoarthritis who were scheduled to have a primary unilateral TKA, (2) patients who were fluent in Mandarin, and (3) consent to participate. The exclusion criteria were: (1) lack of understanding of Mandarin, and (2) inability to comprehend the questionnaires owing to cognitive impairment. To evaluate test-retest reliability, another group of 35 Mandarin-speaking outpatients with knee osteoarthritis (age, 61 ± 10 years; range, 44–84 years; female, 77%) was recruited to complete the OKS-CV twice at a 1-week interval. Reliability was tested using Cronbach’s alpha and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Construct validity was evaluated using Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient to quantify the correlations between the OKS-CV and the WOMAC, Short Form-8 Health Survey (SF-8), and EuroQol Group 5-Dimension Self-Report Questionnaire (EQ-5D). Exploratory factor analysis was performed to clarify dimensionality. The eigenvalue indicates the importance of each factor obtained from factor analysis. Responsiveness was determined by standardized response mean (SRM) and effect size (ES) from preoperative and postoperative scores of the OKS-CV. Floor and ceiling effects also were analyzed.

Results

The internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.89) and test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.93; 95% CI, 0.87–0.97) proved good. Convergent construct validity was supported by moderate to strong correlations between the OKS-CV and the WOMAC (r = −0.80, p < 0.001), the SF-8physical component summary (r = 0.65, p < 0.001), and the EQ-5D usual activities (r = −0.41, p < 0.001) and mobility (r = −0.35, p < 0.001). There also were correlations between the OKS-CV and the SF-8mental component summary (r = 0.58, p < 0.001) and the EQ-5D anxiety/depression (r = −0.35, p < 0.001). The factor analysis yielded three factors with eigenvalues greater than 1. Responsiveness was excellent (SRM = 1.52; ES = 1.52). No floor or ceiling effect was observed.

Conclusions

The OKS-CV showed good acceptability and psychometric properties for the intended population. Future studies are needed to evaluate the mental state of patients with knee osteoarthritis.

Clinical Relevance

The OKS-CV appears to be a reliable, valid, and responsive instrument for Chinese patients with knee osteoarthritis. Based on these results we believe the OKS-CV can be used as a valuable tool for the assessment of patient-reported outcomes in Chinese patients with knee osteoarthritis before and after TKA.

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